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Disarmament Keyword Index


THEMEKEYWORDS
Nuclear Weapons ConventionTreaty, Convention, Time-line, Time-bound, Time-frame, On a phased program, NWC, Nuclear Weapons Convention
VerificationVerification, Verifiability, Under strict international control, On-site inspections, effective system of control
Disarmament and DevelopmentDevelopment, Energy and sources, Economic and Social Development, Economic investments, Consumption of money, Resources, New International Economic Order, Wasted investment, Global expenditure
Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral DisarmamentBilateral, Nuclear Weapon States, NWS, Arms Race, D├ętente, Balance of power, Power blocks, Deterrence, Nuclear powers, Cold war, Military alliances, Nuclear doctrines, Ease international tension, Stockpiling and deployment of Nuclear Weapons, Divisions and confrontation, Nuclear annihilation, Strategic defense doctrines, NATO, US-USSR/Russian, SALT, START, SORT
Nonproliferation and DisarmamentHorizontal and vertical proliferation, Nonproliferation, Nonproliferation in all its aspects, Simultaneous progress, Parallel efforts
Disarmament and the Environment Environment, Environmental norms
International Humanitarian Law and International Court of JusticeInternational Court of Justice, ICJ, International Humanitarian Law, IHL, Human Rights and International Law
Modernization of Nuclear WeaponsCessation of qualitative improvement, Halting and reversing arms race, Freeze development, production, stockpiling and deployment of nuclear weapons, Development of new types of nuclear weapons, Violate commitments of NWS under the CTBT
MissilesMissile, Missile defence, the UN Panel of Governmental Experts on the Issue of Missiles, Delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction
General Views on Disarmament and NAM InvolvementGeneral and complete disarmament, Self determination
Topic Test
Modernization
Disarmament Education
Bilteral Agreements
Outer Space
Time Bound Total Elimination
Multilateralism
Environmental Considerations
Modernization
Arms race and bilateral disarmament
Transparency, irreversibility, verifiability
UN Security Council

On Disarmament


1st. Summit, Belgrade - 1961

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Para 15) The participants in the Conference consider that disarmament is an imperative need and the most urgent task of mankind.
  • (Final Document, Para 15) A radical solution of this problem, which has become an urgent necessity in the present state of armaments, in the unanimous view of participating countries, can be achieved only by means of a general, complete and strictly internationally controlled disarmament.
  • (Final Document, Para 16) General and complete disarmament should include…total prohibition of the production, possession and utilization of nuclear and thermo-nuclear arms, bacteriological and chemical weapons as well as the elimination of equipment and installations for the delivery and placement and operational use of weapons of mass destruction on national territories.
  • (Final Document, Para 18)  (a)The non-aligned nations should be represented at all future world conferences on disarmament, (b) All discussions on disarmament should be held under the auspices of the United Nations.

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  • (Final Document, Para 18) The participants in the Conference urge the Great Powers to sign without further delay a treaty for general and complete disarmament...

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Para 18) The participants in the Conference urge the Great Powers to... release energy and resources spent on armaments to be used for peaceful economic and social development.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Para 18c) General and complete disarmament should be guaranteed by an effective system of inspection and control, the teams of which should include members of non-aligned nations.

2nd. Summit, Cairo - 1964

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Page 21) The Conference emphasizses the paramount importance of disarmament as one of the basic problems of the contemporary world, and stresses the necessity of reaching immediate and practical solutions...

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Page 21) The Conference notes with concern that the continuing arms race and the tremendous advances that have been made in the production of [WMDs] and their stockpiling threaten the world with armed conflict and annihilation.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Page 21) The Conference urges the great Powers to take new and urgent steps towards achieving general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.

3rd Summit, Lusaka - 1970

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Page 81/82) The Heads of State or Government of non-aligned countries, united by common political and economic aspirations … recognising that the massive investments in the economic and social progress of mankind can be made if agreements are reached to reduce expenditure on armaments...

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Para 12) The Conference declares that the following continue to be the aims of non-alignment: … the ending of the arms race followed by universal disarmament...
  • (Final Document, Para 13.d) The participants in the Conference... have accordingly agreed to take the following measures … to offer determined support to the intensification of the work of all international bodies concerned with problems of disarmament, particularly in the preparations for and implementation of the programme of the Disarmament Decade as an integral part of general and complete disarmament.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 6) The continuing arms race is causing alarm and concern; it is rendering the possibility of a nuclear détente extremely precarious and is serving as a spur to limited wars. The balance of terror between the superpowers has not brought peace and security to the rest of the world.
  • (Final Document, Para 6) There are, however, welcome signs of a growing détente between the power blocs but the abatement of the cold war has not yet resulted in the disintegration of the military blocs formed in the context of great power conflicts. 

4 th. Summit, Algiers - 1973

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 72) The Conference declares itself in favour of general and complete disarmament, and especially a ban on the use of nuclear weapons and the manufacture of atomic weapons and warheads and the total destruction of existing stocks...

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Economic Declaration, Page 61): The arms race and the competition for space conquest continue to absorb large sums of money, whereas assistance through international multilateralism co-operation is becoming increasingly reduced in relation to the growing needs of developing countries.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 76) The Conference further emphasizes the enormous benefit to the well-being of all people and to the social and economic development of developing countries, which could ensue from the peaceful use of nuclear technology and the releasing of resources resulting from disarmament.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 10) The present strengthening of détente between East and West and the progress towards the settlement in Europe of problems inherited from the Second World War represent important achievements by the forces of peace in the world. The fears created by the nuclear threat as well as the determination of peoples increasingly tend to give primacy to dialogue rather than confrontation.

5 th. Summit, Colombo - 1976

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Page 45, Para 135): The Conference expressed its conviction that universal peace and security can be assured only by general and complete disarmament...
  • (Final Document, Page 126, Para 1): Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries... call for urgent banning of the use, production and stockpiling of nuclear weapons...

Verification

  • (Final Document, Page 37, Para 135): The conference expressed its conviction that universal peace and security can be assured only by general and complete disarmament, in particular nuclear disarmament, under effective international control...
  • (Final Document, Page 127-128, Para 6): Heads of state or Government of Non-Aligned Countries... report their call for an early agreement on the convening of the World Disarmament Conference in order to promote the solving of basic issues of general and complete disarmament under strict international control.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Page 126; Para 1): Heads of state or Government of Non-Aligned Countries... request the nuclear powers to undertake... measures for gradual withdrawal of nuclear weapons from territories of non-nuclear weapon States...
  • (Final Document, Page 127; Para 3): Heads of state or Government of Non-Aligned Countries... request the discontinuation of the arms race...

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Page 60; Para 6): The continuing diversion of human and material resources from peaceful economic and social pursuits to an unproductive and wasteful arms race, particularly in the field of nuclear and other [WMDs], not only heightens the current grave crisis in world economy but also frustrates the purposes and objectives of both the Disarmament Decade and the Second UN Development Decade...
  • (Final Document, Page 45, Para 136): The conference declared that the arms race is inconsistent with efforts aimed at achieving the New International Economic Order in view of the urgent need to divert the resources utilized for the acceleration of the arms race towards socio-economic development, particularly of the developing countries.

6 th. Summit, Havana - 1979

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 12) The Heads of State or Government considered the following to be the essential objectives of the [NAM]. ... Promotion of unity, solidarity and co-operation among non-aligned countries with a view to the achievement of the objectives of non-alignment…ending the arms race, particularly the nuclear arms race, and the achievement of general and complete disarmament.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 226) [The Conference] appealed to the members of NAM to support this initiative and to spare no efforts in order to ensure the maximum possible success in the implementation of the programme within the framework of the Second Disarmament Decade.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 227): It has been increasingly necessary to strengthen the UN as an instrument of the international community in its efforts to end the arms race and to achieve general and complete disarmament and the dismantling of military pacts and alliances.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 12) The Heads of State or Government considered the following to be the essential objectives of the [NAM]. ... Promotion of unity, solidarity and co-operation among non-aligned countries with a view to the achievement of the objectives of non-alignment…ending the arms race, particularly the nuclear arms race, and the achievement of general and complete disarmament under effective international control.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 25) The treaties that include the results of SALT II are an important step in the negotiations between the two main nuclear Powers and could open prospects for more comprehensive negotiations that should lead to general disarmament and a relaxation of international tensions.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 191) Consolidation of détente and security in Europe can only be lasting if it is extended to other regions, thus contributing to solving world problems such as: disarmament, eradication of colonialism, development of all countries, elimination of conflicts and hotbeds of crisis, and other factors to help military blocs and pacts.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 211) Peace and security cannot be achieved as long as the arms race continues and military alliances are strengthened.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 211) [The Conference] reaffirmed the positions of the Fifth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries that the easing of international tensions cannot be based on the policy of balance of force, spheres of influence, rivalry between power blocs, military alliances and the accumulation of armaments, particularly nuclear weapons, and that the relaxation  of tension cannot be fully ensured without the active participation of non-aligned countries in vital decisions affecting world peace and security on the basis of equality.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 219) The Conference noted with concern the continuation of the arms race, mainly by the NWS...
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 219) As was noted at the First Summit Conference in Belgrade, the special role and responsibility of the great Powers in halting and reversing the arms race...
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 222) The Conference welcomed the signing of the agreement between the USSR and the USA on the limitation of strategic nuclear weapons.

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 225) The Conference noted that the arms race is incompatible with and contrary to the New International Economic Order.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 225) [The Conference] underscored again that increasing material and human potentials were being wasted through investment in armaments, which considerably diminishes the availability of resources indispensable for development.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Para 218) The Conference called the immediate cessation of the qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, a halt in the production of fissionable material for weapons purposes and of all nuclear weapons, and the reduction of nuclear weapons stockpiles leading to their elimination.

7 th. Summit, New Delhi - 1983

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  • (Political Declaration, Page 56, Para 4)  The nuclear weapon powers... should agree on an international convention prohibiting the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons in any circumstances and stop further production and deployment of nuclear weapons.

Nonproliferation and Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 15, Para 30) In order to prevent effectively the horizontal and vertical proliferation of nuclear weapons, nuclear-weapon States should adopt urgent measures for halting and reversing the nuclear arms race.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 15, Para 30)  In order to prevent effectively the horizontal and vertical proliferation of nuclear weapons, nuclear-weapon States should adopt urgent measures for halting and reversing the nuclear arms race.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 14, Para 28) The Heads of State or Government consider that the greatest peril facing the world today is the threat to the survival of mankind from a nuclear war. Disarmament, in particular nuclear disarmament, is no longer a moral issue; it is an issue of human survival.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 14, Para 28) Nuclear weapons are more than weapons of war. They are instruments of mass annihilation.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 56, Para 4)  The non-aligned countries… want an immediate halt to the drift towards nuclear conflict which threatens not only the well-being of humanity in our times but of future generations as well.

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 10, Para 12) The vast technological resources and research capabilities of certain developed countries are being diverted to increasing the already awesome destructiveness of existing weapon system and to devising new ones.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 11, Para 16): The developed countries of the industrialized world, which are responsible for three-quarters of global expenditure on armaments, are engaged in an arms race which continues to absorb colossal human, material and technological resources.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 11, Para 16): The economic and social consequences of the arms race have reinforced these negative trends and militate against bringing about the New International Economic Order.
  • (Final Document, Economic Declaration, Page 71, Para 28) Given the relationship between disarmament and development, the relaxation of tensions in the world and the halting of the arms race, which would release resources for development, are vital necessities for the developing countries and indispensable factors for global progress.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 10, Para 12) The arms race, particularly in nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction has escalated to new levels of irrationality and in some cases a policy to negotiate from a position of strength is predominant.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 10, Para 12) New doctrines are being advanced to justify the accretion and deployment of armament, especially nuclear armaments, in various parts of the world.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 11, Para 14) Doctrines of strategic balance and deterrence, the concept of limited nuclear war, the accumulation of nuclear arms and the policies of interference, intervention, pressures, destabilization and occupation directed primarily against non-aligned countries must be abandoned in favour of policies of peaceful co-existence and cooperation on the basis of equality.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 14, Para 29) The qualitative development of conventional weapons adds a new dimension to the arms race, especially among states possessing the largest military arsenals.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 14,Para 29) New generations of nuclear weapons and chemical weapons with increased lethality and greater accuracy are being deployed and there is increasing danger of the extension of the arms race into outer space.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 16, Para 37) The Heads of State or Government urged the major nuclear-weapon States to pursue their negotiations on arms limitation and disarmament with greater vigour.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 37, Para 120)  The Heads of State or Government welcomed the contribution of the neutral and non-aligned countries within the process of Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) and their efforts to ease international tensions in Europe… including the convening of the conference on confidence building measures and disarmament in Europe
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 51, Para 187) Non-Alignment rejects the obsession with supremacy and the accompanying suspicion and fear as a basis for international relations.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 51, Para 187) The great powers, therefore, must give up the search for power, dominance and supremacy and pursue the policy of peaceful co-existence.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 56, Para 4) The non-aligned countries... urge the nuclear weapon powers to adopt urgent and practical measures for the prevention of nuclear war.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 58, Para 13) We appeal to the great powers to give up mistrust, engage in sincere, forward-looking negotiations in a spirit of shared good faith to reach agreement on various disarmament measures and to find a way out of the deepening economic crisis which threatens all of us.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 15, Para 30) The Heads of State or Government reiterated their conviction that international peace and security can only be ensured through general and complete disarmament, in particular nuclear disarmament, under effective international control.

8 th. Summit, Harare - 1986

International Humanitarian Law and International Court of Justice

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 32, Para 47) The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the use of nuclear weapons, besides being a violation of the Charter of the United Nations, would also be a crime against humanity.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 21, Para 25): The Heads of State or Government reiterated that dialogue, particularly within the framework of the [UN] system, is the key to a solution of the global crisis…[and] pressing international problems such as peace and security, disarmament and development...
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 23, Para 30): The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that disarmament, the relaxation of international tension, respect for the right to self-determination and national independence, the peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with the Charter of the [UN] and the strengthening of international peace and security are closely related to each other.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 23, Para 31): Nuclear weapons are more than weapons of war; they are instruments of mass annihilation.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 37, Para 57): The Heads of State or Government underlined the central role and primary responsibility of the United Nations in the field of disarmament.

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 19, Para 20): [The arms race] has led some developed countries to divert vast amounts of human, material and technological resources from economic and social development towards the creation of new weapons of mass destruction and the perfection of existing ones.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 32, Para 48): The six leaders [Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden and the United Republic of Tanzania] had further urged that this reduction be followed by continuing programme of reduction of armaments leading to general and complete disarmament and should be accompanied by measures to strengthen the [UN] system and to effect the urgently needed transfer of substantial resources from the arms race to social and economic development.
  • (Final Document, Economic Declarations, Page 169, Para 6): The Heads of State or Government emphasized the direct relationship between peace, disarmament and development. They noted that the arrms race, especially the nuclear arms race, creates global instability.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 18, Para 20) The resurgence of great Power rivalries and policies aimed at the extension of spheres of influence have resulted in the escalation of the arms race, in particular the nuclear arms race, to unprecedented qualitative and quantitative dimensions. These negative developments seriously endanger international peace and security.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 19, Para 20) Policies of negotiating from a position of strength continue to be pursued. New and dangerous doctrines are being propagated and public opinion mobilized to justify the development, accumulation and deployment of sophisticated armaments, in particular nuclear armaments, in various parts of the world.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 21, Para 24) The Heads of State or Government affirmed that the particular security perceptions and policies of the major Powers and their alliance systems… heighten their military and political competition, threaten the security of non-aligned and other States, and pose an increasing risk of nuclear war.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 23, Para 32) The Heads of State or Government therefore noted with grave concern the continuing escalation in the arms race, especially in nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, despite the fact that this increases the risk of nuclear war and endangers the survival of humanity.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 24, Para 33) The idea that world peace can be maintained through nuclear deterrence, a doctrine that lies at the root of the continuing escalation in the quantity and quality of nuclear weapons … is the most dangerous myth in existence.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 24-25, Para 34) The Heads of State or Government expressed deep concern at the rapid acceleration of the arms race. ....They were especially concerned that newly emerging technologies were producing a new generation of [WMDs], both nuclear and non-nuclear, whose effects were so similar as to obscure the distinction between nuclear and conventional weapons and thus legitimize the posession of nuclear and other [WMDs].
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 25, Para 34) ...new technologies are being applied to preparation for the development of new weapons and weapons systems in outer space.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 25, Para 35) The Heads of State or Government were greatly perturbed by the announcement by the Government of the United States of America that it no longer considers itself bound by the provisions of the Second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II) of 1979. They urged the Government of the United States of America to reconsider its position.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 28, Para 41) The Heads of State or Government urged the [USA] and the [USSR], in their negotiations, constantly to take into account not only their own national interests but also the vital interests of all peoples of the world. They should keep the [UNGA] and the [CD], as the sole multilateral negotiating forum on disarmament issues, duly informed of the progress and state of their negotiations.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 35, Para 53) The Heads of State or Government noted with deep concern that the qualitative development of conventional weapons adds a new dimension to the arms race... They urged these States to restrain such development. They emphasized that, together with negotiations on nuclear disarmament, measures for the limitation and gradual reduction of armed forces and conventional weapons should be pursued resolutely within the framework of progress towards general and complete disarmament.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 101, Para 218): The Heads of State or Government... welcomed the resumption of the discussions between the [USSR] and the [USA] on the reduction or elimination of the medium-range nuclear missiles deployed on the European continent.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 121-122, Para 271): [They] condemned the exploitation of the human and natural resources of those territories by colonial powers and transnational corporations, as well as the use of some of them for military purposes, including the stockpiling and/or deployment of nuclear weapons.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Harare Appeal on Disarmament, Page 157) We, the Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Movement…wish to convey…our profound concern and anxiety about the continuing nuclear arms race.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Harare Appeal on Disarmament, Page 157) This state of affairs [arms race], if allowed to continue, heightens the risk of a nuclear holocaust and the real possibility of the destruction of civilization.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Harare Appeal on Disarmament, Page 158) We have therefore been moved…to address this appeal to Your Excellency, urging you to use your best efforts to reduce the prevailing tension and to promote a climate of confidence in the world. …We urge the [USA] and the [USSR], as well as all other nuclear-weapon states, to take immediate steps to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Harare Appeal on Disarmament, Page 158) We therefore urge you to fully co-operate with your counterpart in the pursuit of the dialogue which has been initiated to put an end to the arms race with a view to reaching substantive agreements in disarmament, including an early agreement on the prevention of an arms race in outer space.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 24-25, Para 34) [The Heads of State or Government] were especially concerned that newly-emerging technologies were producing a new generation of weapons of mass destruction, both nuclear and non-nuclear, whose effects were so similar as to obscure the distinction between nuclear and conventional weapons and thus legitimize the possession of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 31, Para 47)  [The Heads of State or Government] called for a freeze on the development, production, stock-piling and deployment of nuclear weapons.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 29, Para 44): The existing means of verification are adequate to ensure compliance with a nuclear test ban.  Assertations about the absence of means of verification should not be used as an excuse for the further development and refinement of nuclear weapons.

  • (Final Document, Political Declaration, Page 30, Para 46): The Heads of State or Government rejected the idea that the negotiation of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty should wait until issues relating to verification had been resolved.  They stressed that the formulation and modalities of a verification system depended on the purposes, scope and nature of the corrosponding agreement and, therefore, the requirements of a verification system acceptable to all parties should be considered in the context of negotiations.

9 th. Summit, Belgrade - 1989

Verification

  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 5) The Heads of State or Government underlined in particular that general and complete disarmament under effective international control is by its very nature unattainable unless all countries joined in its implementation.

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 9) [The Heads of State or Government] emphasized the extreme urgency of adopting measures for achieving nuclear disarmament through a time-bound program for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 9) [The Heads of State or Government] also underlined the need to prevent the arms race in its qualitative aspects.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Declaration, Para 1) The Heads of State or Government stressed that since the very first meeting in Belgrade the strengthening of international security through disarmament has remained at the very core of the policy and practice of Non-Alignment.
  • (Final Document, Declaration, Para 5) The pursuit of complete disarmament, especially in weapons of mass destruction, is imperative since it is necessary for securing the very existence of the human race on our planet.
  • (Final Document, Declaration, Page 15) First, until an enduring and stable peace based on a comprehensive, viable and readily implementable structure of international security is established, peace, achievement of disarmament and settlement of disputes by peaceful means, continue to be our first and foremost task.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 4) Disarmament, the relaxation of international tension, respect for the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, especially the principles of the sovereign equality of States, the peaceful settlement of disputes and the injunction to refrain from the use or threat of force in international relations; respect for the right to self-determination and national independence, economic and social development, the complete eradication of colonialism, apartheid and all other forms of racism and racial discrimination, aggression and occupation; the respect for human rights, and the strengthening of international peace and security are closely related to each other.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 5) They were of the view that the on-going process of disarmament could be quickened and its coverage widened through the common endeavor of the entire international community.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 5) They stressed that the strengthening of international security through disarmament and restraints of the qualitative and quantitative escalation of arms race, remains one of the most significant objectives and motives of the Movement’s constant commitment.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 5) They stressed that the policy and practice of non-alignment stands for disarmament as the most tangible form of negation of military might and the use of force in international relations.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 14) They felt in particular that there was no justification for further postposing the initiation of substantive negotiations on all issues related to nuclear disarmament and on preventing an arms race in outer space.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 26) They felt that the prospects for disarmament need to be widened in scope and provide for all the members of the United Nations to participate in and accelerate the initiated process.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Declaration, Para 18) We [the Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries] opposed bloc divisions and confrontation which carried the risk of nuclear annihilation and impeded the struggle of peoples for national liberation.… The call given by our Movement to halt and reverse the arms race has in no small measure led to the current actions and efforts aimed at establishing a more stable and peaceful world.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 1) The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction that the change in the positions of the Great Powers could be perceived as response to the longstanding appeals of the Movement.
  • (Final Document,  International Security and Disarmament, Para 8) They stressed that for a number of reasons conditions today are more favorable for disarmament … The USSR and the USA have, for the first time in history, signed a treaty to eliminate some of the existing nuclear weapons.
  • (Final Document,  International Security and Disarmament, Para 8) The Heads of State or Government welcomed this step and reiterated their expectation that it would be a precursor to the adoption of concrete disarmament measures leading to the complete elimination of nuclear weapons...This process should be followed by the incorporation of other nuclear weapon States into the process of nuclear disarmament.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 24) The Heads of State or Government stressed the importance of the negotiations on conventional disarmament and on confidence and security building measures in Europe which in view of their political as well as military implications should have a positive impact, particularly on the adjoining regions and international relations as a whole. They expressed the hope that this would result in the dismantling of the two major military alliances.

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Declaration, Para 5) The somber contrast between enormous military expenditure and dire poverty underlines the importance of giving concrete shape to the concept of the link between disarmament and development.
  • (Final Document, Declaration, Para 5) The close relationship between disarmament and development must be seen as a contribution to the wider efforts to give precedence to economic development over the priorities imposed by the dangerous and irrational race for military might.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 6) The Heads of State or Government were convinced that their countries must participate actively in any process designed to achieve general and complete disarmament. As a means of avoiding wasteful expenditures on armament and contributing to peace and security, they undertook to contribute to disarmament.
  • (Final Document, International Security and Disarmament, Para 7) Stressing the close link between disarmament and development, they reaffirmed the Action Program adopted at the International Conference on the Relationship between Disarmament and Development, held in 1987, and considered that it provided a valuable framework for future action

10 th. Summit, Jakarta - 1992

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 43) [The Heads of State or Government]...expressed the hope that the implementation of the far-reaching reductions will be successfully carried out, so that the ultimate goal of the complete elimination of nuclear arsenals will be attained within a specific time-frame.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (The Jakarta Message, Page 7, Para 9) We [the Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Movement] heartened by the progress being made in limiting nuclear and conventional armaments. But the disarmament agenda is still unfinished and much more remains to be done. A nuclear-weapons-free world has always been the vision or our Movement. This alone can ensure human survival and is the collective responsibility of all nations. We also urge accelerated efforts on other priority issues, particularly the prohibition of all weapons of mass destruction.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 21) During its three decades of existence, the Movement has always sought to bring about peace, mutually beneficial cooperation and amity among nations,...to maintain peace and to stimulate disarmament efforts leading to an equitable and just world order. Non-Alignment has always been a positive stand for peace, human rights and an economically just world which, by inference, means the rejection of a relationship involving servitude and sacrifice of national self-interest by perpetuating injustice and inequity. Today, the Movement remain vindicated as ideological and military blocks have crumbled and an era of cooperation has dawned.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 24) There is no disputing the continued validity of [NAM's] principles and objectives, which include, inter alia,... achievement of disarmament, especially nuclear disarmament,...
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 38) [The Heads of State or Government] hoped that these positive developments, which are creating a new global environment, will lead to the renunciation of strategic doctrines based on the use of nuclear weapons and to the elimination of weapons of mass destruction and thereby making a real contribution to global security.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 46) The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that the United Nations has a unique role and primary responsibility on all issues of disarmament.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 46) They re-emphasized the right and duty of all States to participate in multilateral efforts on disarmament on the basis of equality and mutual benefit in order to promote universal adherence.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 46) Bilateral and multilateral approaches to disarmament must complement each other.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 44) [The Heads of State or Government] also noted with satisfaction the decisive progress achieved in the complex field of verification and in the on-site inspection provisions which are now included to ensure compliance with agreements.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 44) In this context, they called for the establishment of a multilateral satellite verification system under the auspices of the [UN] to facilitate such processes on a secure and permanent basis which would ensure equal access to information for all States.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 39) The Heads of State or Government observed that the objective of seeking unilateral security through armaments has proved to be a dangerous illusion.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 39) Neither quantitative additions nor qualitative improvements to weapons have reduced a state’s vulnerability or led to absolute security. It is also self-evident that political objectives can no longer be achieved by military means. In this context, they called for enhancement of security to be pursued not at the cost of other countries but in concert with them. Hence, the rational option is to seek security for all through total nuclear disarmament, elimination of all other weapons of mass destruction, and through the balanced and progressive reductions of conventional armaments at the global and regional levels.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 43)The Heads of State or Government welcomed a number of positive developments since the Ninth Summit in the field of nuclear, chemical and conventional disarmament, including the agreements reached in bilateral arms reductions between the United States and the Russian Federation. They attached particular importance to the June 1992 Agreement between the United States and the Russian Federation in Washington D.C...
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 44) The Heads of State or Government also welcomed the broadening and deepening of the dimensions of disarmaments. Far from the mere regulation of armaments and the arms race, agreements now include the destruction of existing arsenals, as well as limiting future production.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 46) Bilateral and multilateral approaches to disarmament must complement each other.

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 7, pg 20) Prominent among these opportunities is the cessation of East-West confrontation which has greatly improved prospects for disarmament, in particular nuclear disarmament, and holds out high expectations for a significant ‘peace divided, whereby the released resources should be devoted to the acceleration of economic growth and development of the developing countries, as disarmament and development are symbiotically linked.
  • (Final Document, Global Issues, Political and Economic Committees, Para 54, pg 38) Aware of the global prevalence of conventional armaments and all other kinds of armaments and their extensive use, the ever-growing expenditures involved in their acquisition and maintenance, as well as new technologies and the increased sophistication brought to conventional weapons systems, the Heads of State or Government stressed the urgency of the need to curb the development and excessive buildup of conventional armaments and all other kinds of armaments...

11 th. Summit, Cartagena - 1995

Nonproliferation and Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 82) The Non-proliferation regime will not be successful without a clear perspective on nuclear disarmament.

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 82) [The Heads of State or Government] called for a renunciation of strategic doctrines based upon the use of nuclear weapons and called for adoption of an action plan for elimination of all nuclear weapons, within a time-bound framework.

International Humanitarian Law and International Court of Justice

  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 97) [The Heads of State or Government]...took note of the resolution 49/75K, “Request for an advisory opinion from the [ICJ] on the legality of the threat or use on nuclear weapons”, adopted by the [UNGA] at its [49th] regular session.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 90) [The Heads of State or Government]... emphasized that any activity relating to further research and development on nuclear arsenals, or their production, would run contrary to the spirit of the CTBT.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Annex II: The Call from Columbia, Page 9, Para 2) We [the Heads of State or Government] shall redouble our efforts aimed at achieving general and complete disarmament, including the nuclear disarmament and the elimination of this type of weapons.
  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 30) There is no disputing the continued validity of [NAM’s] principles and objectives, which include...achievement of disarmament, especially nuclear disarmament...
  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 82) Matters related to disarmament, arms limitation and control and international security have acquired a totally new dimension with the disappearance of the East-West confrontation.
  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 85) [The Heads of State or Government] expressed their concern at the limited and slow progress achieved in the negotiations aimed at reducing, and ultimately eliminating, nuclear arsenals pursuant to the objectives of the general and complete disarmament.
  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 107) [The Heads of State or Government] welcomed the establishment by the [NAM] Coordinating Bureau in New York of a Working Group on Disarmament with the task of coordinating a common position on all issues related to disarmament, so as to enable the Movement to formulate a unified stance in pursuing general and complete disarmament under effective international control.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 82) [The Heads of State or Government] reiterated their belief that general and complete disarmament under effective international control remains the ultimate objective to be achieved for which a comprehensive, non-discriminatory and balanced approach towards international security should be adopted.
  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 83) [The Heads of State or Government] continued to seek general and complete disarmament under effective international control as an ultimate objective to be attained within a specific time frame through the elimination of all nuclear arsenals and all other [WMD].
  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 107) [The Heads of State or Government] welcomed the establishment by the [NAM] Coordinating Bureau in New York of a Working Group on Disarmament, so as to enable the Movement to formulate a unified stance in pursuing general and complete disarmament under effective international control.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 82) Nuclear deterrent scenarios of the past are no longer relevant.
  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 82) In the post-Cold War era there is no justification … to maintain nuclear arsenals and much less to add new ones as a continuation of the arms race.
  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 85) [The Heads of State or Government] urged all the other [NWS] to join the ongoing of efforts of the two countries possessing the largest nuclear weapons arsenals to speed up the process for the complete elimination of this category of arms.

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 4) ...several countries have resolved to reduce their military budgets in order to devote such resources to meet the social and economic development requirements of their people, great powers continue to endanger the future of humankind through the unjustified stockpiling and development on nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and a rampant traffic in armaments continues to put in jeopardy the security and stability of vast regions of the world.
  • (Final Document, Review of the International Situation, Para 109) The Heads of State or Government urged the international community to devote part of the resources made available by the implementation of disarmament and arms limitation agreements to economic and social development, with a view to reduce the ever widening gap between developed and developing countries.

12 th. Summit, Durban - 1998

International Humanitarian Law and International Court of Justice

  • (Final Document, Para 119) The Heads of State or Government reiterated their conviction of the validity of the unanimous conclusion of the Advisory Opinion of the ICJ that “There exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all aspects under strict and effective international control”,...

Verification

  • (Final Document, Para 119) The Heads of State or Government reiterated their conviction of the validity of the unanimous conclusion of the Advisory Opinion of the [ICJ] that “There exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all aspects under strict and effective international control”...

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Durban Declaration for new Millennium, Page 11) We [the NAM] need to ensure our contribution to a new, just world order free from unilateral coercive measures, free from [WMD], particularly nuclear weapons, a world based on tolerance and genuine co-existence, a world based on respect for the [UN] Charter and the full observance of its principles and purposes.
  • (Final Document, Para 113) [The Heads of State or Government] once again called upon the international community to join them in negotiating and implementing universal, non-discriminatory disarmament measures and mutually agreed confidence building measures.
  • (Final Document, Para 115) … the Heads of State or Government reiterated that a number of Non-Aligned Movement countries had taken collective initiatives at the [UNGA] sessions to underscore the need for urgent action in the field of nuclear disarmament, as mandated by the Cartagena Summit.
  • (Final Document, Para 142) The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that global and regional approaches to disarmament are complementary and could be pursued simultaneously.
  • (Final Document, Para 147) The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with the work of the Non-Aligned Working Group on Disarmament under the co-ordination of Indonesia and encouraged delegations to continue their active work in this regard.

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  • (Final Document, Para 113) [The Heads of State or Government] recalled that the Cartagena Summit had called for the adoption of an action plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons within a time bound framework.
  • (Final Document, Para 113) They called for an international conference, preferably in 1999, with the objective of arriving at an agreement, before the end of this millennium on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time to eliminate all nuclear weapons, to prohibit their development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use and threat of use, and to provide for their destruction.
  • (Final Document, Para 114) [The Heads of State or Government] also insisted on the need to conclude a universal and legally binding multilateral agreement committing all States to the complete elimination of nuclear weapons.
  • (Final Document, Para 119) The Heads of State or Government reiterated their conviction of the validity of the unanimous conclusion of the Advisory Opinion of the [ICJ] that, "There exists an obligation to...negotiations leading to nuclear disarament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control"...
  • (Final Document, Para 119) They reiterated their call upon all States to immediately fulfill that obligation by commencing multilateral negotiations leading to an early conclusion of a nuclear weapons convention prohibiting the development, production, testing, deployment, stockpiling, transfer, threat or use of threat of nuclear weapons and providing for their elimination.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 4) ...great powers continue to endanger the future of humankind through the unjustified stockpiling and development of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and a rampant traffic in armaments continues to put in jeopardy the security and stability of vast regions of the world.
  • (Final Document, Para 113) The Heads of State or Government reiterated that with the end of the Cold War, there is no justification for the maintenance of nuclear arsenals, or concepts of international security based on promoting and developing military alliances and policies of nuclear deterrence.

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Para 4)  The Heads of State or Government emphasised that even when the spectre of a nuclear holocaust seemed more remote than in the recent past and several countries had resolved to reduce their military budgets in order to devote such resources to meet the social and economic development requirements of their people, great powers continue to endanger the future of humankind through the unjustified stockpiling and development of nuclear weapons and other [WMDs]...

13 th. Summit, Kuala Lumpur - 2003

Nonproliferation and Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 71) The Heads of State or Government reiterated their principled positions on nuclear disarmament and the related issue of nuclear non-proliferation.

International Humanitarian Law and International Court of Justice

  • (Final Document, Para 74) [The Heads of State or Government] underlined once again the unanimous conclusion of the ICJ that there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and to bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Final Document, Para 71) [The Heads of State or Government] also reiterated deep concern over the slow pace of progress towards nuclear disarmament which remains their highest priority.
  • (Final Document, Para 71) They stressed their concern at the threat to humanity derived from the continued existence of nuclear weapons and of their possible use or threat of use.
  • (Final Document, Para 71) The Heads of State or Government underscored the need to accomplish the total elimination of nuclear weapons...
  • (Final Document, Para 73) The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that in efforts towards the objective of nuclear disarmament, global and regional approaches and confidence building measures complement each other and should, wherever possible, be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security.
  • (Final Document, Para 99) [The Heads of State or Government] expressed their firm support for unilateral, bilateral and multilateral measures adopted by some governments aimed at reducing military expenditures, thereby contributing to strengthening regional and international peace and security. They recognize that CBMs assist in this regard. They took note of the measures being examined by some governments such as the Andean Community of Nations.
  • (Final Document, Para 101) The Heads of State or Government commended the co-ordination carried out by the NAM Working Group on Disarmament and encouraged delegations to continue their active work on issues of common concern to the Movement, particularly towards ensuring respect for the principles of multilateralism and transparency in the areas of disarmament and non-proliferation.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Para 74) [The Heads of State or Government] underlined once again the unanimous conclusion of the [ICJ] that there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and to bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control.

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  • (Final Document, Para 74) [The Heads of State or Government] emphasized the necessity to start negotiations on elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time, including a Nuclear Weapons Convention.
  • (Final Document, Para 75) The Heads of State or Government again called for an international conference, at the earliest possible date, with the objective of arriving at an agreement on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons...

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 69) The Heads of State or Government remained deeply concerned at strategic defence doctrines that set out rationales for the use of nuclear weapons. They remained deeply concerned over the "Alliance Strategic Concept" adopted by [NATO] in April 1999, which not only maintain unjustifiable concepts on international security based on promoting and developing military alliances and policies of nuclear deterrence, but also includes new elements aimed at opening even more the scope for possible use or threat of use of force by NATO.
  • (Final Document, Para 72) The Heads of State or Government, while noting the signing of the Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reduction between the Russian Federation and the United States on 24 May 2002, stressed that reductions in deployments and in operational status cannot substitute for irreversible cuts in, and the total elimination of, nuclear weapons.

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Para 99) The Heads of State or Government stressed the importance of the reduction of military expenditures, in accordance with the principle of undiminished security at the lowest level of armaments, and urged all States to devote resources made available therefrom to economic and social development, in particular in the fight against poverty.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

  • (Final Document, Para 70) [The Heads of State or Government] restated that the development of new types of nuclear weapons is in contravention with the assurances provided by the Nuclear Weapons States at the time of the conclusion of the CTBT that the Treaty would prevent the improvement of existing nuclear weapons and development of new types of nuclear weapons.

Missiles

  • (Final Document, Para 78) The Heads of State or Government welcomed the report prepared by the Panel of Governmental Experts on the Issue of Missiles in all its aspects, which marked the first time the United Nations considered this issue.
  • (Final Document, Para 78) They remained convinced of the need for a multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive and non-discriminatory approach towards missiles in all its aspects as a contribution to international peace and security.

14 th. Summit, Havana - 2006

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  •  (Final Document, Para 81) The Heads of State or Government again called for an international conference to identify ways and means of eliminating nuclear dangers, at the earliest possible date, with the objective of arriving at an agreement on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons...

Disarmament and the Environment

  • (Final Document, Para 90) The Heads of State or Government emphasised the importance of the observance of environmental norms in the preparation and implementation of disarmament and arms limitation agreements.
  • (Final Document, Para 90) They reaffirmed that international disarmament forums should take fully into account the relevant environmental norms in negotiating treaties and agreements on disarmament...

Nonproliferation and Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 71): ...[The Heads of State or Government] called for renewed efforts to resolve the current impasse in achieving nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Purposes and Principles, Para 8) ...the Heads of State and Government of the member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement... stated that the Purposes of the Movement in the present international situation are:
    • (l) To continue pursuing universal and nondiscriminatory nuclear disarmament..
    • (m) To oppose and condemn the categorization of countries as good or evil based on unilateral and unjustified criteria, and the adoption of a doctrine of preemptive attack...
  •  (Final Document, Para 73) The Heads of State or Government expressed their strong concern at the growing resort to unilateralism and in this context, underlined that multilateralism and multilaterally agreed solutions, in accordance with the UN Charter, provide the only sustainable method of addressing disarmament and international security issues.
  • (Final Document, Para 74) They reiterated deep concern over the slow pace of progress towards nuclear disarmament and the lack of progress by the nuclear weapons-States (NWS) to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals.
  • (Final Document, Para 77) They reaffirmed that efforts toward nuclear disarmament, global and regional approaches and confidence building measures complement each other and should...be pursued simultaneously...
  • (Final Document, Para 116) The Heads of State or Government commended the work of the NAM Working Group on Disarmament, under the chairmanship of Indonesia, in coordinating issues of common concern to the Movement in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 75) The Heads of State or Government remained deeply concerned at strategic defense doctrines of NWS, including the “NATO Alliance Strategic Concept”, which not only set out rationales for the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons, but also maintain unjustifiable concepts on international security based on promoting and developing military alliances and nuclear deterrence policies.
  • (Final Document, Para 84) The Heads of State or Government...called on the [US] and the Russian Federation to apply the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability to further reduce their nuclear arsenals, both warheads and delivery systems, under the [Moscow] Treaty.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Para 84) The Heads of State or Government...called on the [US] and the Russian Federation to apply the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability to further reduce their nuclear arsenals, both warheads and delivery systems, under the [Moscow] Treaty.
  • (Final Document, Para 97) They recognised that the IAEA is the sole competent authority for verification of compliance with the obligations under the respective safeguard agreements of the Member States.

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Para 115) The Heads of State or Government stressed the importance of the symbiotic relationship between disarmament and development...
  • (Final Document, Para 115) The Heads of State or Government...expressed concern at the increasing global military expenditure, which could otherwise be spent on development needs.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

  • (Final Document, Para 76) The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the improvement in the existing nuclear weapons and the development of new types of nuclear weapons as envisaged in the [US] Nuclear Posture Review contravene the security assurances provided by the NWS.
  • (Final Document, Para 76) They further reaffirmed that these improvements as well as the development of new types of such weapons violate the commitments undertaken by the NWS at the time of the conclusion of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT).

Missiles

  • (Final Document, Para 87) The Heads of State or Government remained convinced of the need for a multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive, transparent, and non-discriminatory approach toward missiles in all its aspects as a contribution to international peace and security.
  • (Final Document, Para 87) They expressed their support for efforts to be continued within the UN to explore further the issue of missiles in all its aspects. In this regard, they emphasized the need to keep the issue under the agenda of the UN General Assembly and that in accordance with its Resolution 59/67 a Panel of Governmental Experts on the issue of missiles in all its aspects would be established in 2007.

15 th. Summit, Sharm el Sheikh - 2009

Disarmament and the Environment

  • (Final Document, Para 126) The Heads of State and Government emphasized the importance of the observance of environmental norms in the preparation and implementation of disarmament and arms limitations agreements, and in this regard, welcomed the adoption of UNGA Resolution 63/51 in this matter for the first time without a vote.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Summit Declaration, Page 2): [the Heads of State and Government of the Movement of the Non-Aligned Countries] continue to promote disarmament and international security and stability on the basis of equal and undiminished security for all… We will engage constructively with concrete actions towards the implementation of the unequivocal undertaking by the [NWS]…to eliminate their nuclear arsenals.
  • (Final Document, Para 6) Global peace and security continue to elude humankind as a result of, inter alia, increasing tendency by certain States to resort to unilateralism and unilaterally imposed measures, non-fulfillment of the commitments and obligations assumed under the relevant international legally binding instruments especially on weapons of mass destruction...
  •  (Final Document, Para 24.5): ...the Heads of State and Government agreed to...oppose and condemn the categorization of countries as good or evil based on unilateral and unjustified criteria, and the adoption of the doctrine of pre-emptive attack, including attack by nuclear weapons by certain States, which is inconsistent with international law, in particular the international legally-binding instruments concerning nuclear disarmament...
  • (Final Document, Para 45) They further expressed their disappointment at the inability of the World Summit to agree on the issue of disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
  •  (Final Document, Para 105): The Heads of State and Government reiterated their strong concern at the growing resort to unilateralism and in this context, underlined that multilateralism and multilaterally agreed solutions, in accordance with the UN Charter, provide the only sustainable method of addressing disarmament and international security issues.
  • (Final Document, Para 106) They stressed their concern at the threat to humanity posed by the continued existence of nuclear weapons and of their possible use or threat of use.
  • (Final Document, Para 110) They reaffirmed that efforts toward nuclear disarmament, global and regional approaches and confidence building measures complement each other and should, wherever possible, be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security.
  • (Final Document, Para 162) The Heads of State and Government commended the continued work of the NAM Working Group on Disarmament, under the chairmanship of Indonesia, in coordinating issues of common concern to the Movement in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation.
  • (Final Document, Para 162) They encouraged all NAM delegations to actively participate at the international disarmament meetings with a view to promote and achieve the objectives of the Movement. 

Nonproliferation and Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 103) The Heads of State and Government reiterated their continued grave concern over the current difficult and complex situation in the field of disarmament and international security. In this regard, they called for renewed efforts to resolve the current impasse in achieving nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects.
  • (Final Document, Para 103): In this regard, they called for renewed efforts to resolve the current impasse in achieving nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects.
  • (Final Document, Para 106) The Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the Movement’s principled positions on nuclear disarmament, which remains its highest priority, and on the related issue of nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects and stressed the importance that efforts aiming at nuclear non-proliferation should be parallel to simultaneous efforts aiming at nuclear disarmament.
  • (Final Document, Para 110) The Heads of State and Government emphasized that progress in nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects is essential to strengthening international peace and security. 

Disarmament and Development

  • (Final Document, Para 6) The Heads of State and Government noted that the existing, new and emerging threats…continue to impede efforts by States to attain greater economic development. ...Global peace and security continue to elude humankind as a result of...non-fulfilment of the commitments and obligations assumed under the relevant international legally binding instruments especially on weapons of mass destruction.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 106) [the Heads of State and Government] reiterated deep concern over the slow pace of progress towards nuclear disarmament and the lack of progress by the Nuclear Weapons-States (NWS) to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals.
  • (Final Document, Para 107): The Heads of State and Government, while noting the recent statements by NWS of their intention to pursue actions in achieving a world free of nuclear weapons, reaffirmed the need for urgent concrete actions by the NWS to achieve this goal.
  • (Final Document, Para 108) The Heads of State and Government remained deeply concerned about strategic defense doctrines of NWS, including the “NATO Alliance Strategic Concept,” which...also maintain unjustifiable concepts on international security based on promoting and developing...nuclear deterrence policies.
  • (Final Document, Para 118) The Heads of State and Government, while noting the entry into force of the 2002 Moscow Treaty between the Russian Federation and the United States, stressed that reductions in deployments and in operational status cannot substitute for irreversible cuts in, and the total elimination of, nuclear weapons, and called on the United States and the Russian Federation to apply the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability to further reduce their nuclear arsenals, both warheads and delivery systems, under the Treaty.
  • (Final Document, Para 118) While taking note of the positive signals by the United States and the Russian Federation on their negotiations on the replacement of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), which is due to expire by the end of 2009, the Heads of State and Government urged them to conclude such negotiations urgently in order to achieve further deep cuts in their strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. The Heads of State and Government further stressed that such cuts should be irreversible, verifiable and transparent.
  • (Final Document, Para 119) They remained concerned that the implementation of a national missile defence system could trigger an arms race(s) and the further development of advanced missile systems and an increase in the number of nuclear weapons. 

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  • (Final Document, Para 112) [The Heads of State and Government] emphasized the necessity to start negotiations on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time, including negotiations on a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  • (Final Document, Para 115): The Heads of State and Government again called for an international conference to identify ways and means of eliminating nuclear dangers, at the earliest possible date, with the objective of arriving at an agreement on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time to eliminate all nuclear weapons...

Verification

  • (Final Document, Para 112) They reaffirmed the importance of the unanimous conclusion of the ICJ that there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and to bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control. 
  • (Final Document, Para 118) The Heads of State and Government, while noting the entry into force of the 2002 Moscow Treaty between the Russian Federation and the United States, stressed that reductions in deployments and in operational status cannot substitute for irreversible cuts in, and the total elimination of, nuclear weapons, and called on the United States and the Russian Federation to apply the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability to further reduce their nuclear arsenals, both warheads and delivery systems, under the Treaty.
  • (Final Document, Para 118) While taking note of the positive signals by the United States and the Russian Federation on their negotiations on the replacement of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), which is due to expire by the end of 2009, the Heads of State and Government urged them to conclude such negotiations urgently in order to achieve further deep cuts in their strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. The Heads of State and Government further stressed that such cuts should be irreversible, verifiable and transparent.

International Humanitarian Law and International Court of Justice

  • (Final Document, Para 45) [The Heads of State and Government] noted that the World Summit Outcome, in spite of its limitations, could serve as a workable basis for UN Member States to move forward the process of strengthening and updating the UN to meet existing and emerging threats to economic and social development, peace and security, and human rights and the rule of law.
  • (Final Document, Para 112) They reaffirmed the importance of the unanimous conclusion of the ICJ that there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and to bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

  • (Final Document, Para 109) The Heads of State and Government reiterated that improvements in existing nuclear weapons and the development of new types of nuclear weapons as envisaged in the United States Nuclear Posture Review contravene the security assurances provided by the NWS.
  • (Final Document, Para 109) They further reaffirmed that these improvements as well as the development of new types of such weapons violate the commitments undertaken by the NWS at the time of the conclusion of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT).
  • (Final Document, Para 149) Mindful of the threat posed to humankind by the existing weapons of mass destruction and underlining the need for the total elimination of such weapons, the Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the need to prevent the emergence of new types of weapons of mass destruction and therefore supported the necessity of monitoring the situation and triggering international action as required.

Missiles

  •  (Final Document, Para 121)  The Heads of State and Government remained convinced of the need for a multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive, transparent, and non-discriminatory approach toward the issue of missiles in all its aspects as a contribution to international peace and security.
  • (Final Document, Para 121)They expressed their support for efforts to be continued within the UN to explore further the issue of missiles in all its aspects. In this regard, they emphasized the contribution of peaceful uses of space technologies, including space launch vehicle technologies, to human advancement, such as for telecommunications and data gathering on natural disasters.
  • (Final Document, Para 121)They also emphasized the need to keep the issue of missiles in all its aspects on the agenda of the UN General Assembly andwelcomed that the Panel of Governmental Experts established in accordance with Resolution 59/67 successfully concluded its work in 2008 and submitted its report to the 63rd session of the UN General Assembly.
  • (Final Document, Para 121) Pending the achievement of such a universal approach related to delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction, any initiative to address these concerns effectively and in a sustainable and comprehensive manner should be through an inclusive process of negotiations in a forum where all States could participate as equals.

XVI Ministerial Conference and Commemorative Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement, Bali - 2011

International Humanitarian Law and International Court of Justice

  • (Final Document, Para 142) [The Ministers] reaffirmed the importance of the unanimous conclusion of the ICJ that there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and to bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

  • (Declaration, Page 2) [The Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Non-Aligned Movement] resolve to: achieve a safer and more secure world through our commitment to promote disarmament, international security and stability, bearing in mind that total and complete nuclear disarmament remains the only route to a world free from nuclear weapons, while the inalienable right of all States to peaceful uses of nuclear energy should be assured.
  • (Final Document, Para 31.5) [The Minsters of Foreign Affiars of the NAM agreed to] oppose and condemn the categorization of countries as good or evil based on unilateral and unjustified criteria and the adoption of the doctrine of pre-emptive attack, including attack by nuclear weapons by certain States, which is inconsistent with international law, in particular the international legally-binding instruments concerning nuclear disarmament…
  • (Final Document, Para 135) The Ministers reiterated their strong concern at the growing resort to unilateralism and in this context, underlined that multilateralism and multilaterally agreed solutions, in accordance with the UN Charter, provide the only sustainable method of addressing disarmament and international security issues.
  • (Final Document, Para 136) The Ministers reaffirmed the Movement’s principled positions on nuclear disarmament, which remains its highest priority...
  • (Final Document, Para 136) They stressed their concern at the threat to humanity posed by the continued existence of nuclear weapons and of their possible use or threat of use.
  • (Final Document, Para 140) They reaffirmed that efforts toward nuclear disarmament, global and regional approaches and confidence building measures complement each other and should, wherever possible, be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security.
  • (Final Document, Para 188) Mindful of the threat posed to humankind by the existing weapons of mass destruction particularly Nuclear Weapons and underlining the need for the total elimination of such weapons, the Ministers reaffirmed the need to prevent the emergence of new types of weapons of mass destruction and therefore supported the necessity of monitoring the situation and triggering international action as required.

Verification

  • (Final Document, Para 150) The Ministers reaffirmed the importance of the application of the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability by NWS in all measures related to the fulfillment of their nuclear disarmament obligations.
  • (Final Document, Para 151) ...they called on the United States and the Russian Federation to apply the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability to such cuts, to further reduce their nuclear arsenals, both warheads and delivery systems, thus contributing to the fulfillment of their nuclear disarmament obligations and facilitating the realization of a world free of nuclear weapons at an earliest date.
  • (Final Document, Para 175) They recognised that the IAEA is the sole competent authority for verification of compliance with the obligations under the respective safeguards agreements of the Member States.

Nuclear Weapons Convention

  • (Final Document, Para 147) The Ministers again called for an international conference to identify ways and means of eliminating nuclear dangers, at the earliest possible date, with the objective of an agreement on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time, to prohibit their development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use or threat of use, and to provide for their destruction.

Nonproliferation and Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 133) [The Ministers] called for renewed efforts to resolve the current impasse in achieving nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects.
  • (Final Document, Para 134) [T]he Ministers reiterated their determination to promote multilateralism as the core principle of negotiations in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation...
  • (Final Document, Para 136) The Ministers...stressed the importance that efforts aiming at nuclear non-proliferation should be parallel to simultaneous efforts aiming at nuclear disarmament.
  • (Final Document, Para 140) The Ministers emphasized that progress in nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects is essential to strengthening international peace and security.

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

  • (Final Document, Para 136) [The Ministers] reiterated deep concern over the slow pace of progress towards nuclear disarmament and the lack of progress by the Nuclear-Weapon States (NWS) to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals in accordance with their relevant multilateral legal obligations.
  • (Final Document, Para 137) The Ministers, while noting the recent statements by NWS of their intention to pursue actions in achieving a world free of nuclear weapons, reaffirmed the need for urgent concrete actions by the NWS to achieve this goal in accordance with their nuclear disarmament legal obligations.
  • (Final Document, Para 138) The Ministers remained deeply concerned at strategic defence doctrines of NWS, including the “NATO Alliance Strategic Concept”, which not only set out rationales for the use or threat of use of nuclear  weapons, but also maintain unjustifiable concepts on international security based on promoting and developing military alliances and nuclear deterrence policies.
  • (Final Document, Para 151) The Ministers, while noting the conclusion of the New START Treaty between the Russian Federation and the United States, stressed that reductions in deployments and in operational status cannot substitute for irreversible cuts in, and the total elimination of, nuclear weapons.
  • (Final Document, Para 152) The Ministers agreed that there remains an ever growing and most pressing need for concrete actions by Nuclear-Weapon States, to take further substantive and practical measures urgently, according to their multilaterally agreed commitments, to attain the goal of complete nuclear disarmament within a specified framework of time.

Disarmament and the Environment

  • (Final Document, Para 161) The Ministers emphasized the importance of the observance of environmental norms in the preparation and implementation of disarmament and arms limitation agreements, and in this regard, they welcomed the adoption of General Assembly Resolution 65/53 on this matter without a vote.
  • (Final Document, Para 161) They reaffirmed that international disarmament forums should take fully into account the relevant environmental norms in negotiating treaties and agreements on disarmament and arms limitation and that all States, through their actions, should  contribute fully to ensuring compliance with the aforementioned norms in the implementation of treaties and conventions to which they are parties.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

  • (Final Document, Para 139) The Ministers reiterated that improvements in existing nuclear weapons and the development of new types of nuclear weapons as envisaged in the United States Nuclear Posture Review contravene the security assurances provided by the NWS.
  • (Final Document, Para 139) They further reaffirmed that these improvements as well as the development of new types of such weapons violate the commitments undertaken by the NWS at the time of the conclusion of the CTBT.

Missiles

  • (Final Document, Para 155) [The Ministers] also emphasized the need to keep the issue of missiles in all its aspects on the agenda of the UN General Assembly and welcomed that the Panel of Governmental Experts established in accordance with Resolution 59/67 successfully concluded its work in 2008 and submitted its report to the 63rd session of the UN General Assembly.
  • (Final Document, Para 155) Pending the achievement of such a universal approach related to delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction, any initiative to address these concerns effectively and in a sustainable and comprehensive manner should be through an inclusive process of negotiations in a forum where all States could participate as equals. They stressed the importance of the security concerns of all States at regional and global levels in any approach to the issue of missiles in all its aspects.

16 th. Summit, Tehran - 2012

Verification

(Final Document, Para 165) The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the importance of the application of the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability by NWS in all measures related to the fulfillment of their nuclear disarmament obligations.

International Humanitarian Law and International Court of Justice

(Final Document, Para 157) The Heads of State or Government…reaffirmed the importance of the unanimous conclusion of the ICJ that there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and to bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control.

Nuclear Weapons Convention

(Final Document, Para 151) The Heads of State or Government…underscored the need for the NWS to implement the unequivocal undertaking that they provided in 2000 and further reiterated in 2010 so as to accomplish the total elimination of nuclear weapons, and emphasized, in this regard, the urgent need to commence and to bring to a conclusion negotiations on comprehensive and complete nuclear disarmament without delay.

(Final Document, Para 162) The Heads of State or Government, while recalling the Statement on the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons adopted by the XVI Ministerial Conference and Commemorative Meeting of the NAM in Bali, Indonesia, from 23 to 27 May 2011, reiterated their firm commitment to work for convening a high level international conference to identify ways and means of eliminating nuclear weapons, at the earliest possible date, with the objective of an agreement on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time, to prohibit their development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use or threat of use, and to provide for their destruction.

(Final Document, Para 167) The Heads of State or Government agreed that there remains an ever growing and most pressing need for concrete actions by NuclearWeapon States, to take further substantive and practical measures urgently, according to their multilaterally agreed commitments, to attain the goal of complete nuclear disarmament within a specified framework of time.

(Final Document, Para 181) The Heads of State or Government noted with concern the lack of agreement on a number of key priorities of NAM States Parties to the NPT, including inter alia, to begin negotiations on a Nuclear-WeaponsConvention…

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

(Final Document, Para 152) The Heads of State or Government, while noting the recent statements by NWS of their intention to pursue actions in achieving a world free of nuclear weapons, reaffirmed the need for urgent concrete actions by the NWS to achieve this goal in accordance with their nuclear disarmament legal obligations and commitments.

(Final Document, Para 166) The Heads of State or Government, while noting the conclusion and entry into force of the New START Treaty between the Russian Federation and the United States, stressed that reductions in The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Database deployments and in operational status cannot substitute for irreversible cuts in, and the total elimination of, nuclear weapons. In this context they called on the United States and the Russian Federation to apply the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability to such cuts, to further reduce their nuclear arsenals, both warheads and delivery systems, thus contributing to the fulfillment of their nuclear disarmament obligations and facilitating the realization of a world free of nuclear weapons at the earliest date.

Nonproliferation and Disarmament

(Final Document, Para 148) The Heads of State or Government reiterated their continued concern over the current difficult and complex situation in the field of disarmament and international security. In this regard, they called for renewed efforts to resolve the current impasse in achieving nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects.

(Final Document, Para 149) Reaffirming the absolute validity of multilateral diplomacy in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation, the Heads of State or Government reiterated their determination to promote multilateralism as the core principle of negotiations in the area of disarmament and nonproliferation. In this regard, they welcomed the adoption of General Assembly Resolution 66/32 on Promotion of multilateralism in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation.

(Final Document, Para 151) The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the Movement’s principled positions on nuclear disarmament, which remains its highest priority, and on the related issue of nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects. They stressed the importance that efforts aiming at nuclear nonproliferation should be parallel to simultaneous efforts aiming at nuclear disarmament…

(Final Document, Para 155) The Heads of State or Government emphasized that progress in nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects is essential to strengthening international peace and security. They reaffirmed that efforts toward nuclear disarmament, global and regional approaches and confidence building measures complement each other and should, wherever possible, be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security. In this context, they stressed that nuclear disarmament, as the highest priority established by SSODI and as a multilateral legal obligation, should not be made conditional on confidence building measures or other disarmament efforts.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

(Final Document, Para 154) The Heads of State or Government reiterated, with concern, that improvements in existing nuclear weapons and the development of new types of nuclear weapons as envisaged in the United States Nuclear Posture Review contravene the security assurances provided by the NWS. They stressed once again that these improvements as well as the development of new types of such weapons violate the commitments undertaken by the NWS at the time of the conclusion of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT).

(Final Document, Para 209) Mindful of the threat posed to humankind by the existing weapons of mass destruction, particularly Nuclear Weapons and underlining the need for the total elimination of such weapons, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the need to prevent the emergence of new types of weapons of mass destruction and therefore supported the necessity of monitoring the situation and triggering international action as required

Missiles

(Final Document, Para 168) The Heads of State or Government continued to be concerned over the negative implications of the development and deployment of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) defence systems and the threat of weaponization of outer space which have, inter alia, contributed to the further erosion of an international climate conducive to the promotion of disarmament and the strengthening of international security…They remained seriously concerned at the negative security consequences of the deployment of strategic missile defence systems which could trigger an arms race(s) and lead to the further development of advanced missile systems and an increase in the number of nuclear weapons.

(Final Document, Para 171) They also emphasized the need to keep the issue of missiles in all its aspects on the agenda of the UN General Assembly and welcomed that the Panel of Governmental Experts established in accordance with Resolution 59/67 successfully concluded its work in 2008 and submitted its report to the 63rd session of the UN General Assembly. While welcoming the adoption by consensus for the first time of the UNGA decision 66/516 on "Missiles", the Heads of State or Government encouraged follow up efforts to further examine the elements contained in the conclusions of the Secretary-General's Report A/63/176. Pending the achievement of such a universal approach related to delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction, any initiative to address these concerns effectively and in a sustainable and comprehensive manner should be through an inclusive process of negotiations in a forum where all States could participate as equals. They stressed the importance of the security concerns of all States at regional and global levels in any approach to the issue of missiles in all its aspects.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

(Final Document, Para 147) The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed and reiterated the long-standing principled positions of the Movement on disarmament and international security, including the decisions taken at the XII Summit in Durban in 1998, the XIII Summit in Kuala Lumpur in 2003, the XIV Summit in Havana in 2006, the XV Summit in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, in July 2009, the XIII Ministerial Conference in Cartagena in 2000, the XIV Ministerial Conference in Durban in 2004, the Ministerial Meeting held in Putrajaya, Malaysia, in 2006, the XV Ministerial Conference held in Teheran, Islamic Republic of Iran, in 2008 and the XVI Ministerial Conference and Commemorative Meeting of the NonAligned Movement held in Bali, Indonesia, in May 2011.

(Final Document, Para 151) The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the Movement’s principled positions on nuclear disarmament, which remains its highest priority, and on the related issue of nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects. They stressed the importance that efforts aiming at nuclear nonproliferation should be parallel to simultaneous efforts aiming at nuclear disarmament. They stressed their concern at the threat to humanity posed by the continued existence of nuclear weapons and of their possible use or threat of use. They reiterated deep concern over the slow pace of progress towards nuclear disarmament and the lack of progress by the Nuclear-Weapon States (NWS) to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals in accordance with their relevant multilateral legal obligations. They underscored the need for the NWS to implement the unequivocal undertaking that they provided in 2000 and further reiterated in 2010 so as to accomplish the total elimination of nuclear weapons, and emphasized, in this regard, the urgent need to commence and to bring to a conclusion negotiation on comprehensive and complete nuclear disarmament without delay.

(Final Document, Para 155) The Heads of State or Government emphasized that progress in nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects is essential to strengthening international peace and security. They reaffirmed that efforts toward nuclear disarmament, global and regional approaches and confidence building measures complement each other and should, wherever possible, be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security.

(Final Document, Para 160) The Heads of State or Government welcomed efforts of NAM Member States in advancing the goal of nuclear disarmament. In this regard, they noted the convening by the Islamic Republic of Iran of the first and second International Conferences on Disarmament and NonProliferation, in Tehran, on 17-18 April 2010 and 12-13 June, 2011, under the theme: "Nuclear Energy for everyone, Nuclear Weapon for no one."

Multilateralism

(Final Document, Para 149) Reaffirming the absolute validity of multilateral diplomacy in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation, the Heads of State or Government reiterated their determination to promote multilateralism as the core principle of negotiations in the area of disarmament and nonproliferation. In this regard, they welcomed the adoption of General Assembly Resolution 66/32 on Promotion of multilateralism in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation.

(Final Document, Para 150) The Heads of State or Government reiterated their strong concern at the growing resort to unilateralism and in this context, underlined that multilateralism and multilaterally agreed solutions, in accordance with the UN Charter, provide the only sustainable method of addressing disarmament and international security issues.

Disarmament and the Environment

(Final Document, Para 177) The Heads of State or Government emphasized the importance of the observance of environmental norms in the preparation and implementation of disarmament and arms limitation agreements, and in this regard, they welcomed the adoption of General Assembly Resolution 66/31 on this matter without a vote. They reaffirmed that international disarmament forums should take fully into account the relevant environmental norms in negotiating treaties and agreements on disarmament and arms limitation and that all States, through their actions, should contribute fully to ensuring compliance with the aforementioned norms in the implementation of treaties and conventions to which they are parties.

(Final Document, Para 221) The Heads of State or Government underlined the importance of the adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 65/55, taking into consideration the possible harmful effects to human health and the environment, caused by the use of weapons and munitions containing depleted uranium.

17 th. Summit, Margarita - 2016

Nuclear Weapons Convention

(Final Document, Para 165) …stressed the need to address this issue in the context of the efforts aimed at the realization of a nuclear-weapon-free world and in this regard, they noted continuing relevant international efforts, including the three International Conferences on the Humanitarian Consequences of Nuclear Weapons, held respectively in Norway in 2013, in Mexico in 2014 and in Vienna in 2014, and the important role of the humanitarian initiative in promoting progress towards a comprehensive nuclear weapons convention.

Transparency, irreversibility, verifiability

(Final Document, Para 171) while noting the statements by NWS of their intention to pursue actions in achieving a world free of nuclear weapons, reaffirmed the need for urgent concrete actions by the NWS to achieve this goal in accordance with their nuclear disarmament legal obligations and commitments. They reaffirmed the importance of the application of the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability by NWS in all measures related to the fulfillment of their nuclear disarmament obligations.

(Final Document, Para 187) The Heads of State or Government, while noting the conclusion and entry into force of the New START Treaty between the Russian Federation and the United States, stressed that reductions in deployments and in operational status, although they may contribute to risk reduction, cannot substitute for irreversible cuts in, and the total elimination of, nuclear weapons. In this context they called on the United States and the Russian Federation to apply the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability to such cuts, to further reduce their nuclear arsenals, both warheads and delivery systems, thus contributing to the fulfillment of their nuclear disarmament obligations and facilitating the realization of a world free of nuclear weapons at the earliest date. 

Verification

(Final Document, Para 214) …stressed that any pressure or interference in the Agency’s verification process, which could jeopardize the efficiency and credibility of the Agency, should be avoided. They recognised that the IAEA is the sole competent authority for verification of compliance with the obligations under the respective safeguard agreements of the Member States. They also reaffirmed that a clear distinction has to be made between the legal obligations of Member States under their respective safeguards agreements and their voluntary undertakings, in order to ensure that such voluntary undertakings are not turned into legal safeguards obligations. 

Disarmament and Development

(Final Document, Para 248) …welcomed the adoption without a vote of General Assembly Resolution 70/32 on the relationship between disarmament and development. They also expressed concern at the increasing global military expenditure, which could otherwise be spent on development needs. They further stressed the importance of the reduction of military expenditures, in accordance with the principle of undiminished security at the lowest level of armaments, and urged all States to devote resources made available from there to economic and social development, in particular in the fight against poverty. 

Nuclear Weapons States, Arms Race and Bilateral Disarmament

(Final Document, Para 187) …while noting the conclusion and entry into force of the New START Treaty between the Russian Federation and the United States, stressed that reductions in deployments and in operational status, although they may contribute to risk reduction, cannot substitute for irreversible cuts in, and the total elimination of, nuclear weapons. In this context they called on the United States and the Russian Federation to apply the principles of transparency, irreversibility and verifiability to such cuts, to further reduce their nuclear arsenals, both warheads and delivery systems, thus contributing to the fulfillment of their nuclear disarmament obligations and facilitating the realization of a world free of nuclear weapons at the earliest date. 

Nonproliferation and Disarmament

(Final Document, Para 164) …reiterated their continued concern over the current difficult and complex situation in the field of disarmament and international security. In this regard, they called for renewed efforts to resolve the current impasse in achieving nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation in all its aspects.

(Final Document, Para 168) …reaffirmed the Movement’s principled positions on nuclear disarmament, which remains its highest priority, and on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons in all its aspects. They stressed the importance of ensuring that efforts aimed at nuclear non-proliferation are parallel to simultaneous efforts aimed at nuclear disarmament. They expressed concern at the threat to humanity posed by the continued existence of nuclear weapons and of their possible use or threat of use.

(Final Document, Para 174) …emphasized that progress in nuclear disarmament and nuclear non- proliferation in all its aspects is essential to strengthening international peace and security. They stressed the importance of ensuring that efforts aimed at nuclear non-proliferation are parallel to simultaneous efforts aimed at nuclear disarmament. They reaffirmed that efforts toward nuclear disarmament, global and regional approaches and confidence building measures complement each other and should, wherever possible, be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security. Nevertheless, they stressed that nuclear disarmament, as the highest priority established by SSOD-I and as a multilateral legal obligation, should not be made conditional on confidence building measures or other disarmament efforts.

Disarmament and the Environment

(Final Document, Para 165) …expressed their deepest concern over the immediate, indiscriminate, and massive death and destruction caused by any nuclear weapon detonation and its long term catastrophic consequences on human health, environment, and other vital economic resources, thus endangering the life of present and future generations

(Final Document, Para 200) …emphasized the importance of the observance of environmental norms in the preparation and implementation of disarmament and arms limitation agreements, and in this regard, they welcomed the adoption of General Assembly Resolution 70/30 on this matter without a vote. They reaffirmed that international disarmament forums should take fully into account the relevant environmental norms in negotiating treaties and agreements on disarmament and arms limitation and that all States, through their actions, should contribute fully to ensuring compliance with the aforementioned norms in the implementation of treaties and conventions to which they are parties.

(Final Document, Para 216) …affirmed the need to strengthen the Radiological Safety and Protection Systems at facilities utilizing radioactive materials as well as at radioactive waste management facilities, including the safe transportation of these materials. They reaffirmed the need to strengthen existing international regulations relating to safety and security of transportation of such materials. They noted the efforts of the IAEA in this regard, including through the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety which was unanimously endorsed by the IAEA General Conference. While reiterating the need to take appropriate measures to prevent any dumping of nuclear or radioactive wastes, they called for effective implementation of the Code of Practice on the International Trans-boundary Movement of Radioactive Waste of the IAEA as a means of enhancing the protection of all States from the dumping of radioactive waste on their territories.

International Humanitarian Law and International Court of Justice

(Final Document, Para 165) …expressed their deepest concern over the immediate, indiscriminate, and massive death and destruction caused by any nuclear weapon detonation and its long term catastrophic consequences on human health, environment, and other vital economic resources, thus endangering the life of present and future generations. They reiterated further their deep concern at the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons, and in this context reaffirmed the need for all States at all times to comply with applicable international law, including international humanitarian law. They stressed the need to address this issue in the context of the efforts aimed at the realization of a nuclear-weapon-free world and in this regard, they noted continuing relevant international efforts, including the three International Conferences on the Humanitarian Consequences of Nuclear Weapons, held respectively in Norway in 2013, in Mexico in 2014 and in Vienna in 2014, and the important role of the humanitarian initiative in promoting progress towards a comprehensive nuclear weapons convention.

(Final Document, Para 169) …reaffirmed the importance of the unanimous conclusion of the ICJ that there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and to bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control. They called upon the NWS to fulfill their multilateral legal obligations on nuclear disarmament and to implement the unequivocal undertaking they provided in 2000 and further reiterated in 2010 so as to accomplish the total elimination of nuclear weapons. They emphasized, in this regard, the urgent need to commence and to bring to a conclusion negotiations on comprehensive and complete nuclear disarmament without any further delay;

(Final Document, Para 235) …Mindful of the threat posed to humankind by the existing weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons and underlining the need for the total elimination of such weapons, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the need to prevent the emergence of new types of weapons of mass destruction and therefore supported the necessity of monitoring the situation and triggering international action as required. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption of the General Assembly Resolution 69/27 entitled “Prohibition of the development and manufacture of new types of weapons of mass destruction and new systems of such weapons: report of the Conference on Disarmament”.

Modernization of Nuclear Weapons

(Final Document, Para 173) …reiterated, with concern, that improvements in existing nuclear weapons and the development of new types of nuclear weapons as provided for in the military doctrines of some NWS, including the United States Nuclear Posture Review, violate their legal obligations on nuclear disarmament, as well as the commitments made to diminish the role of nuclear weapons in their military and security policies and contravene the negative security assurances provided by the NWS. They stressed once again that these improvements as well as the development of new types of such weapons violate also the commitments undertaken at the time of the conclusion of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and at the NPT Review Conferences by the NWS.

Missiles

(Final Document, Para 188) …continued to be concerned over the negative implications of the development and deployment of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) defense systems and the threat of weaponization of outer space which have, inter alia, contributed to the further erosion of an international climate conducive to the promotion of disarmament and the strengthening of international security. The abrogation of the ABM Treaty brought new challenges to strategic stability and the prevention of an arms race in outer space. They remained seriously concerned at the negative security consequences of the deployment of strategic missile defence systems which could trigger an arms race(s) and lead to the further development of advanced missile systems and an increase in the number of nuclear weapons.

(Final Document, Para 192) …remained convinced of the need for a multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive, transparent and non-discriminatory approach toward the issue of missiles in all its aspects as a contribution to international peace and security. They expressed their support for efforts to be continued within the UN to explore further the issue of missiles in all its aspects. In this regard, they emphasized the contribution of peaceful uses of space technologies, including space launch vehicle technologies, to human advancement, such as for telecommunications and data gathering on natural disasters. They also emphasized the need to keep the issue of missiles in all its aspects on the agenda of the UN General Assembly and welcomed that the Panel of Governmental Experts established in accordance with Resolution 59/67 successfully concluded its work in 2008 and submitted its report to the 63rd session of the UN General Assembly. While welcoming the consensus adoption of the UNGA decision 69/517 on “Missiles”, they encouraged follow up efforts to further examine the elements contained in the conclusions of the Secretary- General’s Report A/63/176. Pending the achievement of such a universal approach related to delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction, any initiative to address these concerns effectively and in a sustainable and comprehensive manner should be through an inclusive process of negotiations in a forum where all States could participate as equals. They stressed the importance of the security concerns of all States at regional and global levels in any approach to the issue of missiles in all its aspects.

General Views on Disarmament and NAM Involvement

(Final Document, Para 16) …recalled that the Movement has been playing a key active, effective and central role, over the years, on issues of concern and vital importance to its members, such as decolonization, apartheid, the situation in the Middle East including the Question of Palestine, the maintenance of international peace and security, and disarmament.

(Final Document, Para 26.5) Oppose and condemn any categorisation of countries as good or evil based on unilateral and unjustified criteria, and the adoption of the doctrine of pre-emptive attack, including attack by nuclear weapons by certain States, which is inconsistent with international law, in particular the international legally-binding instruments concerning nuclear disarmament; and further oppose and condemn all military actions including aggressive joint military exercises, or use of force or threat of use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of Non-Aligned Countries which constitute acts of aggression and blatant violations of the principles of the UN Charter, including non-interference in the internal affairs of States;

(Final Document, Para 170) …acknowledged the significant contribution towards realizing the objective of nuclear disarmament made by NAM Member and Observer States, including through the voluntary renunciation of the possession of nuclear weapons by Belarus, Kazakhstan, South Africa and Ukraine;

(Final Document, Para 175) …reaffirmed the importance and the relevance of the UN Disarmament Commission (UNDC) as the sole specialized, deliberative body within the UN multilateral disarmament machinery and reiterated their full support for its work. They expressed regret that UNDC was unable to reach agreement on any recommendation since 2000 due to the lack of political will and inflexible positions of some Nuclear-Weapons States, despite NAM’s constructive role and concrete proposals throughout the deliberations, especially in the Working Group on “Recommendations for achieving the objective of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons”.

(Final Document, Para 177) …expressed their appreciation for the efforts undertaken, in particular by those representatives of Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement who served as the Presidents of the CD for the commencement of its substantive work, including negotiations. They noted the various proposals on the program of Work of the CD as contained in the documents CD/1864, a decision adopted by CD on 29 May 2009 but not implemented, CD/1933/Rev.1, CD/1952, and CD/1955 which were presented successively by Algeria, Egypt, Iran and Iraq between 2009 to 2013 sessions. They called on the CD to agree by consensus on a balanced and comprehensive programme of work without any further delay taking into account the security interests of all States. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the importance of the principle contained in the final document of the SSOD-I that “The adoption of disarmament measures should take place in such an equitable and balanced manner as to ensure the right of each State to security and to ensure that no individual State or group of States may obtain advantages over others at any stage”. They agreed to continue coordination of efforts at the NAM Chapter in Geneva;

(Final Document, Para 178) …commended the efforts of NAM Member States in advancing the goal of nuclear disarmament. In this regard, they welcomed the convening, at the initiative of NAM, of the first-ever high-level meeting of the General Assembly on nuclear disarmament on 26 September 2013, and underlined the strong support expressed at that meeting for taking urgent and effective measures to achieve the total elimination of nuclear weapons.

(Final Document, Para 181) …underlined the importance of UNGA resolutions 68/32, 69/58 and 70/34 as a roadmap on nuclear disarmament and accordingly stressed the need for an active participation of NAM Member States in all activities related to their implementation, including enhancing public awareness and education on this issue. They commended all efforts aiming at promoting the implementation of these resolutions, including those undertaken by the Group of 21 in the Conference on Disarmament.

(Final Document, Para 249) …commended the work of the NAM Working Group on Disarmament, under the chairmanship of Indonesia, in coordinating issues of common concern to the Movement in the field of disarmament. They encouraged NAM delegations to continue to actively participate in the Working Group with a view to promote and achieve the objectives of the Movement.

Multilateralism

(Final Document, Para 166) …Reaffirming the absolute validity of multilateral diplomacy in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation, the Heads of State or Government reiterated their determination to promote multilateralism as the core principle of negotiations in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. In this regard, they welcomed the adoption of General Assembly Resolution 70/31 on Promotion of multilateralism in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation.

(Final Document, Para 169) …reiterated their deep concern over the slow pace of progress towards nuclear disarmament and the lack of progress by the Nuclear-Weapon States (NWS) to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals in accordance with their relevant multilateral legal obligations.

(Final Document, Para 192) …remained convinced of the need for a multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive, transparent and non-discriminatory approach toward the issue of missiles in all its aspects as a contribution to international peace and security.

(Final Document, Para 248) …expressed firm support for the unilateral, bilateral, regional and multilateral measures aimed at reducing military expenditures, thereby contributing to strengthening regional and international peace and security and recognized that confidence building measures assisted in this regard.

UNGA and SSOD

(Final Document, Para 174) …reaffirmed that efforts toward nuclear disarmament, global and regional approaches and confidence building measures complement each other and should, wherever possible, be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security. Nevertheless, they stressed that nuclear disarmament, as the highest priority established by SSOD-I and as a multilateral legal obligation, should not be made conditional on confidence building measures or other disarmament efforts.

(Final Document, Para 177) …expressed their appreciation for the efforts undertaken, in particular by those representatives of Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement who served as the Presidents of the CD for the commencement of its substantive work, including negotiations. They noted the various proposals on the program of Work of the CD as contained in the documents CD/1864, a decision adopted by CD on 29 May 2009 but not implemented, CD/1933/Rev.1, CD/1952, and CD/1955 which were presented successively by Algeria, Egypt, Iran and Iraq between 2009 to 2013 sessions. They called on the CD to agree by consensus on a balanced and comprehensive programme of work without any further delay taking into account the security interests of all States. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the importance of the principle contained in the final document of the SSOD-I that “The adoption of disarmament measures should take place in such an equitable and balanced manner as to ensure the right of each State to security and to ensure that no individual State or group of States may obtain advantages over others at any stage”. They agreed to continue coordination of efforts at the NAM Chapter in Geneva;

(Final Document, Para 183) …reiterating their support for a comprehensive consideration of the UN disarmament agenda and the ways and means of revitalizing and enhancing the disarmament machinery, reaffirmed that a Fourth Special Session of the UN General Assembly devoted to Disarmament (SSOD-IV) remains the most appropriate forum for furthering the priorities established by SSOD-I, including nuclear disarmament as the highest priority for the international community. In this context, while recalling the UNGA resolution 65/66 and its decision 70/551 entitled “Convening of the fourth special session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament”, they stressed the importance of active participation in the open- ended working group established by the resolution to consider and reaching consensus on the objectives and agenda of SSOD-IV, including the possible establishment of a preparatory committee. In this regard, they welcomed the convening of this Open Ended Working Group for its substantive sessions in 2016 and 2017 and the election of Ecuador to chair it;

(Final Document, Para 192) …remained convinced of the need for a multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive, transparent and non-discriminatory approach toward the issue of missiles in all its aspects as a contribution to international peace and security. They also emphasized the need to keep the issue of missiles in all its aspects on the agenda of the UN General Assembly and welcomed that the Panel of Governmental Experts established in accordance with Resolution 59/67 successfully concluded its work in 2008 and submitted its report to the 63rd session of the UN General Assembly. While welcoming the consensus adoption of the UNGA decision 69/517 on “Missiles”, they encouraged follow up efforts to further examine the elements contained in the conclusions of the Secretary- General’s Report A/63/176.

(Final Document, Para 193) …reiterated that in the context of NWFZs, it is essential that NWS should provide unconditional assurances against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons to all States of the zone. They urged States to conclude agreements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned with a view to establishing new NWFZs in regions where they do not exist, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Document of the First Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to Disarmament (SSOD-I) and the Principles and Guidelines adopted by the UN Disarmament Commission in 1999.

(Final Document, Para 248) …welcomed the adoption without a vote of General Assembly Resolution 70/32 on the relationship between disarmament and development.

Conference on Disarmament

(Final Document, Para 176) …reaffirmed the importance of the Conference on Disarmament (CD) as the sole multilateral negotiating body on disarmament, and reiterated their call on the CD to agree on a balanced and comprehensive program of work by, inter alia, establishing an ad hoc committee on nuclear disarmament as soon as possible and as the highest priority. They emphasized the necessity to start negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament, without further delay, on a comprehensive nuclear weapons convention that sets, inter alia, a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time.

(Final Document, Para 177) …expressed their appreciation for the efforts undertaken, in particular by those representatives of Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement who served as the Presidents of the CD for the commencement of its substantive work, including negotiations. They noted the various proposals on the program of Work of the CD as contained in the documents CD/1864, a decision adopted by CD on 29 May 2009 but not implemented, CD/1933/Rev.1, CD/1952, and CD/1955 which were presented successively by Algeria, Egypt, Iran and Iraq between 2009 to 2013 sessions. They called on the CD to agree by consensus on a balanced and comprehensive programme of work without any further delay taking into account the security interests of all States. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the importance of the principle contained in the final document of the SSOD-I that “The adoption of disarmament measures should take place in such an equitable and balanced manner as to ensure the right of each State to security and to ensure that no individual State or group of States may obtain advantages over others at any stage”. They agreed to continue coordination of efforts at the NAM Chapter in Geneva;

(Final Document, Para 179) …recalling General Assembly resolution 68/32, expressed satisfaction at the adoption of resolutions 69/58 and 70/34 on the “follow-up to the 2013 high-level meeting of the General Assembly on nuclear disarmament” proposed by NAM, through which the Assembly:

(Final Document, Para 179a) …Calls for the urgent commencement of negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament for the early conclusion of a comprehensive convention on nuclear weapons to prohibit their possession, development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use or threat of use and to provide for their destruction;

(Final Document, Para 181) …underlined the importance of UNGA resolutions 68/32, 69/58 and 70/34 as a roadmap on nuclear disarmament and accordingly stressed the need for an active participation of NAM Member States in all activities related to their implementation, including enhancing public awareness and education on this issue. They commended all efforts aiming at promoting the implementation of these resolutions, including those undertaken by the Group of 21 in the Conference on Disarmament.

(Final Document, Para 189) …reemphasized the urgent need for the commencement of substantive work in the CD, inter alia, on the prevention of an arms race in outer space, taking note of the joint Russian- Chinese initiative of a draft treaty on the “Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space, the Threat or Use of Force Against Outer Space Objects” (PPWT) presented in the Conference on Disarmament on 12 February 2008 and in 2014. They noted that this initiative is a constructive contribution to the work of the Conference, and is a good basis for further discussion toward adopting an international legally-binding instrument.

(Final Document, Para 235) …welcomed the adoption of the General Assembly Resolution 69/27 entitled “Prohibition of the development and manufacture of new types of weapons of mass destruction and new systems of such weapons: report of the Conference on Disarmament”. 

Test Ban and CTBT

(Final Document, Para 173) …stressed once again that these improvements as well as the development of new types of such weapons violate also the commitments undertaken at the time of the conclusion of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and at the NPT Review Conferences by the NWS.

(Final Document, Para 186) …stressed the significance of achieving universal adherence to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, including by all NWS, which, inter alia, should contribute to the process of nuclear disarmament. They reiterated that if the objectives of the Treaty were to be fully realized, the continued commitment of all States signatories, especially the NWS, to nuclear disarmament would be essential. In this context, the ratification of the CTBT by Angola, Brunei Darussalam, Chad, Guinea-Bissau, Iraq, Congo and Niue was welcomed. In this regard, they also welcomed the adoption of a “Special Declaration on the 20 Years of the opening for signature of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty” during the Summit of Heads of State and Government of CELAC, held in Quito, Ecuador, the 27th January 2016.

(Final Paragraph, Para 461) …welcomed the successful outcomes of the Fourth Summit Heads of State and Government of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States -CELAC- held in Quito, Ecuador, on January 27, 2016, in particular … on the 20 Years of the opening for signature of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty …” 

UN Disarmament Commission

(Final Document, Para 175) …reaffirmed the importance and the relevance of the UN Disarmament Commission (UNDC) as the sole specialized, deliberative body within the UN multilateral disarmament machinery and reiterated their full support for its work. They expressed regret that UNDC was unable to reach agreement on any recommendation since 2000 due to the lack of political will and inflexible positions of some Nuclear-Weapons States, despite NAM’s constructive role and concrete proposals throughout the deliberations, especially in the Working Group on “Recommendations for achieving the objective of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons”. They called upon UN Member States to display the necessary political will and flexibility in order to enable the Commission to agree on substantive outcomes in its current cycle.

(Final Document, Para 193) …urged States to conclude agreements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned with a view to establishing new NWFZs in regions where they do not exist, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Document of the First Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to Disarmament (SSOD-I) and the Principles and Guidelines adopted by the UN Disarmament Commission in 1999. 

UN Security Council

(Final Document, Para 196) …The Heads of State or Government reiterated their full support for the establishment in the Middle East of a zone free of nuclear weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction. As a priority step to this end, they reaffirmed the need for the speedy establishment of a NWFZ in the Middle East in accordance with the Security Council Resolution 487 (1981) and paragraph 14 of the Security Council Resolution 687 (1991) and the relevant General Assembly resolutions adopted by consensus. They called upon all parties concerned to take urgent and practical steps towards the fulfillment of the proposal initiated by Iran in 1974 for the establishment of such a zone. Pending its establishment, they demanded on Israel, the only country in the region that has not joined the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) nor declared its intention to do so, to renounce possession of nuclear weapons, to accede to the NPT without precondition and further delay, to place promptly all its nuclear facilities under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) full-scope safeguards according to Security Council Resolution 487 (1981) and to conduct its nuclear related activities in conformity with the non-proliferation regime.

(Final Document, Para 197) …took into consideration the draft resolution tabled by the Syrian Arab Republic, on behalf of the Arab Group, before the Security Council on 29 December 2003 on the establishment of a zone free of all weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East.

(Final Document, Para 234) …noting the adoption of resolution 1540 (2004), resolution 1673 (2006), resolution 1810 (2008) and resolution 1977 (2011) by the Security Council, the Heads of State or Government underlined the need to ensure that any action by the Security Council does not undermine the UN Charter and existing multilateral treaties on weapons of mass destruction and of international Organizations established in this regard, as well as the role of the General Assembly. They further cautioned against the continuing practice of the Security Council to utilize its authority to define the legislative requirements for Member States in implementing Security Council decisions. In this regard, they stressed the importance of the issue of non-state actors acquiring weapons of mass destruction to be addressed in an inclusive manner by the General Assembly, taking into account the views of all Member States.