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The Kursk Accident
August 22 Update:
On Tuesday afternoon, the Norwegian deep-sea divers left Russia and headed back to Norway on the Seaway Eagle. According to Rear Admiral Einar Skorgen, Commander in Chief of the North Norway defense forces, the divers could not be of more assistance with the equipment they had available. Russian television explained that the Norwegians did not have a license to undertake a search of the Kursk, and needed further preparations in order to undertake such a search.(1) The Russian navy announced that the Russian operation would continue until the last sailor's body is recovered from the Kursk.(2) The timetable for raising the Kursk, on the other hand, was unclear. Former Black Sea Fleet Commander Admiral Eduard Baltin stated that the vessel could not be raised before the Fall of 2001.(3) According to Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev, three methods for raising the submarine were under consideration.(4) Russian Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Aleksey Kudrin announced that although the issue had not yet been discussed by the cabinet, the Russian government would find the money necessary to "liquidate the consequences" of the Kursk accident.(5) President Vladimir Putin arrived in Severomorsk on Tuesday evening. After meeting with members of the government commission investigating the Kursk accident, Putin traveled to Vidyayevo, where the Kursk was based, to meet with the sailors' families.
Reports on the timing of the rescue effort continued to vary. Deputy Prime Minister Ilya Klebanov, who is heading a government commission looking into the causes of the Kursk accident, stated Tuesday that the determination that an object located on the seabed of the Barents was in fact the Kursk was only determined on August 13 at 6:30pm.(6) This is 14 hours later than previously reported by the military.
The Kursk accident has heightened concern regarding the safety of the Russian nuclear navy. Tula Oblast governor Vasiliy Starodubtsev has promised to fund emergency equipment for the Tula and Novomoskovsk nuclear-powered submarines, which are sponsored by the oblast.(7)
August 21 Update:
Early Western media reports suggested that Russia had formally requested that the LR5 descend to the submarine.(8) However, the joint British-Norwegian diving team working on the Kursk was able to pry open the rear emergency hatch at 7:45am without the assistance of the LR5. Deputy Prime Minister Ilya Klebanov reported to the press that the airlock between the two hatches was completely flooded. (9) Norwegian sources contradicted this statement, saying that they had found air bubbles, indicating possible pockets of air below.(10) No bodies were found in the airlock, as would have been expected had a crew member attempted to open the hatch from inside. According to Norwegian sources, the divers concluded by noon on Monday that the entire submarine was flooded. The Russians, Norwegians, and British jointly decided that an attempt to dock the LR5 rescue submarine would not make sense under the circumstances.(11) The Norwegians opened the interior emergency hatch later in the day. One body was found inside the hatch. As of 6:48pm local time, the divers had reportedly discovered the bodies of three dead sailors in the ninth compartment.(12)
Later on Monday, the Russian government reported that it had agreed with Norway to the continued participation of the Norwegian divers in Russian efforts. According to Head of the Northern Fleet General Staff Vice Admiral Mikhail Motsak, the Russians would contract with the Norwegians for their participation and pay their expenses.(13) Deputy Prime Minister Klebanov said that attempts would be made to enter the ninth compartment with a videocamera. It might also be possible to get into the eighth compartment, he said.(14) In a continuing effort to convince the Russian public that rescue efforts were undertaken in a timely manner, Northern Fleet Commander Admiral Vyacheslav Popov said that the Kursk was located 3.5 hours after it failed to communicate with surface vessels at the designated time, and that rescue efforts began immediately.(15) Utro.ru put the time of discovery at 4:35am on August 13. At 7am on Sunday Minister of Defense Igor Sergeyev informed President Putin that the accident had taken place, and recommended that Putin not travel to Severomorsk. Popov said that the first attempt to attach a rescue bell was made at about 6pm on August 13. The bell struck the submarine and had to resurface. A second attempt was made 30 minutes after the first.
Several causes for the accident were still being examined. According to the government commission looking into the causes of the Kursk accident headed by Deputy Prime Minister Ilya Klebanov, the Kursk was at a depth of 16-18 meters when it collided with a "large object." The collision resulted in a hole larger than a square meter, located between the first and second compartments. As there were no surface ships in the vicinity which could have inflicted the damage, the Klebanov commission stated that a World War II mine might have been the culprit. Vice Admiral Mikhail Motsak said that six such mines had been found in the Barents Sea between 1992 and 1999. Further, he said that the first small size of the primary explosion would be consistent with an old mine.
However, Motsak said a collision with a submarine was also a possibility. He noted that three foreign submarines were in the area of the Northern Fleet exercises, and one may very well have been British. According to Motsak, the collision resulted in the detonation of three or four weapons with the force of 1-2 tons of TNT. Motsak denied, however, that the Kursk had missile-torpedoes on board at the time.(16) However, Captain Sergey Prokofev, commander of the hydroacoustical section of the Admiral Chabanenko, which took part in the Northern Fleet exercises, said that his service had not discovered any signs of foreign submarines in the area.(17) The Russian press, on the other hand, reported sightings of a British emergency buoy (see earlier news), as well as objects on the sea floor, 330m from the Kursk, that might have been part of the railing from a British submarine's conning tower.(18) In response, the deputy head of the Northern Fleet press service, Captain Igor Babenko, stated that only a preliminary examination of the sea floor surrounding the Kursk had been made. He said that there were many objects on the sea floor, including foreign submarine debris that had sunk since World War II.(19) When Northern Fleet officials were asked about the discovery of a fragment from a British submarine, they reportedly responded that it was "absolutely untrue."(20) The British Defense Ministry said that there were no British submarines in the area, and denied that there could be any evidence of British submarines in the vicinity.(21)
Some sources continued to speculate that the Kursk sank as a result of friendly fire. According to Moskovskiye vedomosti, cruise missile specialists who had been working on the Petr Velikiy cruiser during the Northern Fleet training exercises said that they might have hit the Kursk while testing a new Granit missile. According to the specialists, the missile was launched on Saturday, and was monitored as it fell. Two explosions, instead of one, resulted. Soon after, the ship was ordered to begin searching for the sunken Kursk in the area where they had just fired their missile. Rumors that the Petr Velikiy sunk the Kursk have been rife in the Severomorsk Naval Base. Reportedly, the Kursk sunk in an area where it was not supposed to be, according to the exercise plan.(22) The reasons for the flooding in the stern of the submarine are unclear. Motsak said that the stern-tube glands might have been damaged, resulting in seepage; this has occurred in other submarines. Alternatively, hitting the sea floor might have deformed the bulkhead, causing it to leak.
The possibility of raising the submarine was discussed by several parties. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Klebanov said that a meeting would be held on Wednesday to examine the issue. He said that the pontoons in use in the Russian fleets would not be able to raise the Kursk and an "international effort" would be required.(23)
August 20 Update:
The Seaway Eagle, carrying Norwegian deep-sea divers, arrived early in the day. Unmanned equipment was lowered to examine the submarine, and then divers were lowered in a bell. They tested the outer hull of the submarine with special mallets in order to determine where there might be air pockets inside. The Russians reported that the Norwegians had discovered virtually the entire submarine was flooded, and that the escape hatches were too damaged to permit the docking of the LR5.(24) Norwegian reports subsequently denied that the hatch was too damaged for the LR5 to be used.
A British official on site said that negotiations with Russia were going extremely slowly, indicating some tension among the British and Russian teams regarding Russian leadership of the rescue effort.
August 19 Update:
On August 19, Chief of the Northern Fleet General Staff Vice Admiral Mikhail Motsak appeared on Russian television and added several new admissions to the navy's prior, more guarded statements. First, he announced that all of the Kursk's crew was probably now dead, and that sailors in the bow of the submarine had probably died within minutes of a massive explosion.(25) In contrast to earlier reports, he said that early communications from the sailors had indicated the the hull was flooding and that they were in need of additional oxygen. Further, he indicated that the rescue began four hours after the incident. He said that the rear emergency hatch was damaged, possibly by a sailor attempting to use the escape hatch. The damage would make it difficult for rescue vessels to form an air-tight seal. The sailor's action may also have flooded the rear of the vessel.
The Normand Pioneer arrived at the scene late in the day with the British LR5 rescue submarine on board.(26) The British planned to wait for the arrival of Norwegian deep-sea divers the following day.
The possibility of raising the submarine became an international issue when the spokesman of a Norwegian company promised his company could raise the submarine within a month.(27) The possibility that a torpedo accident caused the Kursk to sink was supported by an August 17 article in the online edition of Krasnaya Zvezda, which cited an unnamed former Northern Fleet admiral as saying that the Northern Fleet had succumbed to industry pressure to replace electrically driven torpedoes with ones powered by liquid fuel propellant. The latter, argued the admiral, were more dangerous to store and use. The article suggested that a liquid-fuel explosion might have caused the Kursk to sink. The article was removed from the website late Friday, and replaced by an article with the same title that made no mention of the torpedo change.(28)
August 18 Update:
The Russian Navy continued its rescue efforts without success. So far, 10 rescue attempts have been made. During one attempt, the rescue capsule was unable to form an air tight seal because of apparent damage to the Kursk's rear emergency hatch. Reportedly, Northern Fleet rescuers heard knocking from within the submarine during one of the rescue attempts on Thursday, a full two days after the last report of sounds from within the submarine.(29)
The Norwegian rescue vessel Seaway Eagle, with 12 deep-sea divers aboard, refueled in Tromsoe Friday morning and is expected at the scene around midnight on Saturday. Norwegian sources report that the divers will assist the Russians in fastening heavy wires to the Kursk, which is slowly settling onto its side, making it more difficult for rescue vessels to latch onto the hull. The Normand Pioneer, carrying the British LR5 rescue submarine, is now expected to arrive on Sunday, somewhat later than first expected.(30) On Friday, U.S. Defense Secretary William Cohen said that a small team of U.S. deep sea rescue experts was being gathered in Norfolk, Virginia, so that it might fly to Russia this weekend and assist in the rescue efforts. No final request for aid had yet been received from Moscow.(31) Speculation as to the cause of the accident continues. On August 18, the Russian press raised the possibility of a collision with an U.S. submarine, pointing to the overflight of the area where the Kursk lies by U.S. Orion planes and an intercepted transmission from a U.S. submarine headed for Norway.(32) However, the Norwegian Ministry of Defense officially announced that the U.S. nuclear-powered submarine Memphis had arrived at a Norwegian naval base and was found to have no external damage indicating that it had been involved in a collision. The Norwegian ministry also reportedly recorded Russian rescue operations during the day on Saturday.(33) In its August 19 issue, Segodnya reported that Northern Fleet sources had determined that a British submarine was in the vicinity of the Kursk submarine when it went down. This story was further confirmed when Russian television correspondent Arkadiy Mamontov, on board one of the rescue ships, reported that a green and white striped emergency buoy had been sighted in the water. The Russian Navy uses red and white buoys. Northern Fleet sources suggested that the British submarine remained on the seabed for nearly 24 hours, and then headed off in the direction of Norway.(34)
Despite the official commission's current claim that a collision caused the accident, Northern Fleet Commander Admiral Vyacheslav Popov said in an interview Friday evening that an explosion likely caused the accident; the explosion could have been internal or caused by a collision.(35) Various foreign nations have reported that there were two explosions in the vicinity of the accident, though they have not said whether they were the cause of the accident or the aftermath of a collision. The Norwegian ship Marjatta, which was observing Northern Fleet manoevres, reported explosions, as did Norway's NORSAR seismological observatory. Preliminary analyses conducted by NORSAR indicate that a larger explosion occurred at 07:30:42 on August 12 at an estimated location of 69'38" North, 37'19 East, measuring 3.5 on the Richter scale, corresponding to about 1-2 tons of explosive. A smaller explosion with a magnitude of 1.5 was recorded from the same location 2 minutes 15 seconds earlier.(36) The possibility of a collision with a surface ship is also being investigated. The government commission headed by Klebanov announced that it would be looking at satellite photos from the time of the accident to see if there was a civilian ship in the area. The Ministry of Transport, however, has denied that any such ship was present.
August 17 Update:
While the Russian Navy waited for the arrival of the British LR5 rescue submarine (leaving by ship from Trondheim, Norway), it continued efforts to rescue the Kursk sailors using its own equipment. On the fourth attempt, a seal was finally achieved on the submarine's hull, but the rescue vessel had by then run too low on its battery and had to return to the surface. No other attempts succeeded. The LR5 is expected to arrive on site on Saturday. British officials announced that a three-man Russian crew would accompany the first LR5 descent and be responsible for entering the submarine and ascertaining conditions and the presence of any survivors. A request for assistance was also extended to Norway, which is sending 12 deep-sea divers. The divers are expected Friday evening.(37)
At a press conference in Severomorsk, Deputy Prime Minister Ilya Klebanov, who is heading a government commission looking into the causes of the Kursk accident, said that the submarine sank as a result of a collision with another vessel. The sub then sank from a depth of 20m and collided with the ocean floor. He said that the catastrophe lasted about two minutes.(38) At a separate press conference, Minister of Defense Igor Sergeyev confirmed that a complete examination of the outside of the submarine supported the collision theory.(39) However, the Russian commission has provided no evidence of a second vessel involved in a collision. Navy sources refused to comment on the statement, and continue to report that there was an explosion in the bow of the vessel. On St. Petersburg television, former commander of the Northern Fleet Nuclear-Powered Submarine Division Vice Admiral Yegor Tomko said that the only realistic scenario involves the explosion of torpedoes in the Kursk's first compartment, and that at most one third of the sailors are likely to have survived the incident.(40) There has reportedly been no sign of life from the sailors since Tuesday night.
August 16 Update:
Russia formally requested assistance from Britain to rescue the sailors aboard the Kursk. On Wednesday afternoon in Europe, a Russian transport aircraft carrying the British Submarine Search and Rescue System, including the LR5 rescue submarine, Scorpio remote operated vessel, extra equipment, decompression chambers, and crew landed in Trondheim, Norway. Before the Search and Rescue System can reach the site, preparations need to be made on the Norwegian mother ship the Normand Pioneer, and the rescue vessels need to sail some 900 nautical miles to the Kursk's location.(41) It is not clear whether the LR5's fittings will be compatible with those of the Kursk; the British rescue team spokesman said that if the Kursk has an internationally recognized fitting around its rescue hatch, the LR5 will be successful.(42)
Russian rescue efforts, meanwhile, continue unabated. One of the Priz rescue bells was almost lost in one attempt to latch onto the Kursk, due to strong currents in the area and increasingly bad weather.(43) At 8am Wednesday local time, the Russians began using a larger rescue capsule, called the Bester, which has a crew of three and can evacuate up to 20 men at a time. As of 3pm there was no positive news.
Without providing further explanation, Russian authorities now say that there is enough oxygen to last until August 25.(44) Since the vessel was supplied with emergency oxygen for each crew member for five days, the current estimate may be based on assumptions of the number of sailors already presumed dead (for more information, see below). However, there have been no communications from the Kursk's crew since Tuesday night.
On Saturday August 12 during Northern Fleet training exercises in the Barents Sea the Russian nuclear-powered guided missile submarine (SSGN) Kursk sank in approximately 100 meters of water with some 118 sailors aboard. Reportedly, several senior naval officers were also aboard, observing the training exercises. According to Polyarnaya pravda, a Murmansk newspaper, when the Kursk failed to make contact with the naval command at the designated time later that day, Northern Fleet Commander Admiral Vyacheslav Popov ordered rescue ships into the area. It took hours to locate the vessel, as it did not launch a marking buoy before sinking.(45)
The Kursk does not carry nuclear weapons, but does carry 24 conventionally armed anti-ship cruise missiles for use in its primary attack mission against large surface ships such as aircraft carriers. SSGNs are not believed to have carried nuclear-tipped cruise missiles since Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to remove nuclear weapons from all naval vessels (except ballistic missile submarines) in 1991.
Early reports stated that one or two compartments of the submarine were immediately flooded; this caused the crew to shut down the Kursk's two nuclear reactors. According to the Russian Navy, the reactor shutdown eliminated the risk of environmental contamination. While there is no external power to circulate water to cool the reactor, and the cooling intakes are blocked by the seabed, third-generation reactors like that on the Kursk are reportedly equipped with a battery-free cooling system in which water continues to circulate in the reactor installation without electricity supply.(46) The reactor shutdown, however, resulted in a loss of electricity, needed for lighting and operation of a system that manufactures fresh oxygen from seawater.(47)
The Kursk is a Project 949A Antey-class [NATO designation Oscar II-class] SSGN. There are four Oscar IIs currently operating in the Northern Fleet, and five in the Pacific Fleet. The Kursk was launched in 1994, and entered into service on January 20, 1995. The 154m long, 9m wide submarine is double-hulled, with 3.5 meters between the outer hull and the pressure hull. There are 10 watertight compartments within the pressure hull, four of which are reportedly now flooded.(48) The Kursks eight torpedo tubes could have been used for the crew to escape in an emergency; but they are all located in the flooded compartments. The emergency escape pod is likewise inaccessible, since it is located in the second compartment. Up to 75 crewmembers may have been caught in the flooded compartments.(49)
On Monday, Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief Admiral Vladimir Kuroyedov said that the accident was the result of a serious collision. On Tuesday, he said that the most likely cause of the accident was the explosion of a torpedo. Deputy Prime Minister Ilya Klebanov's statement that the sub may have hit an old World War II mine seems less likely. Another likely explanation is an explosion of the high-pressurized air tanks, located near the torpedo tubes between the hulls in the bow.
The Kursk is lying on the ocean floor in the Barents Sea, about 45 miles off the Kola Peninsula, at a depth of about 100 meters. The Russian Navy Staff has reported the official coordinates as 69 degrees 40 minutes north and 37 degrees 35 minutes east. The vessel is lying in silt. The Russian Navy says that it is listing 30 degrees to port.(50) Other sources report it as listing as much as 60 degrees.
The Russian Navy has two Priz rescue bells attached to rescue ships above the submarine. Attempts to seal the bell onto the sub's hatch have been unsuccessful so far, due to bad weather and the angle of the sub. If the bell can be attached, pressure between the bell and sub will be equalized, and 12 submariners be rescued. The bell can also provide the sub with oxygen and electricity. International aid has been offered. Several Russian admirals have gone to Brussels to discuss the situation a NATO headquarters. (51) As of Tuesday night in Russia, the submarine appeared to be running out of oxygen. The crew reportedly has individual breathing apparatuses on board with five days of oxygen per submariner. Crewmembers continue to tap out SOS signals on the Kursk hull.(52)
(1) "Po dannym telekanala RTR, norvezhskiye spasateli pokinuli rayon katastrofy APL 'Kursk' v Barentsevom more," Interfax, 22 August 2000.
(2) "Glavnyy shtab VMF zayavlyayet, chto operatsiya v Barentsevom more budet provoditsya do sikh por, poka telo poslednego moryaka ne budet izvlecheno iz podlodki 'Kursk'," Interfax, 22 August 2000.
(3) "APL 'Kursk' mozhet byt podnyata na poverkhnost moray ne ranshe chem. Osenyu 2001 goda - admiral Baltin," Interfax, 22 August 2000.
(4) "Ministr oborony oprovergayet informatsiyu o nalichii na bortu 'Kurska' 130 chelovek," Interfax, 22 August 2000.
(5) "Vitse-premet Kudrin obeshchayet vydeleniye neobkhodimykh sredstv na likvidatsiyu posledstviy avarii APL 'Kursk' v Barentsevom more," Interfax, 22 August 2000.
(6) "Ranniy prikhod norvezhskikh vodolazov vryad li izmenil by situatsiyu s APL 'Kursk', schitayet Klebanov," Interfax, 22 August 2000.
(7) "Tulskaya oblast vydelyayet sredstva na pokupku avariyno-spasatelnogo snaryazheniya dlya APL 'Tula' i 'Novomoskovsk'," Interfax, 22 August 2000.
(8) BBC Radio, 21 August 2000.
(9) Gavrilenko and Gundarov.
(10) Christine Engh, "Ubaaten fylt av vann - redningsaksjonen avsluttes," Aftenposten online edition, 21 August 2000, http://www.aftenposten.no.
(11) Gavrilenko and Gundarov.
(12) Christine Engh.
(13) "Rossiya zaklyuchit kontrakt s norvezhskimi vodolazami na prodolzheniye rabot na podlodke 'Kursk," Interfax, 21 August 2000.
(14) "Britanskaya mini-podlodka ne budet uchastvovat v spasatelnykh rabotakh v Barentsevom more - Klebanov," Interfax, 21 August 2000.
(15) Andrey Gavrilenko and Vladimir Gundarov, "Verit I spasat do posledney minuty," Krasnaya zvezda online edition, 21 August 2000, http://www.redstar.ru.
(16) Gavrilenko and Gundarov.
(17) "V rayone avarii 'Kurska' ne bylo inostrannykh podlodok," Lenta.ru online edition, 21 August 2000, http://www.lenta.ru.
(18) "Bliz podlodki 'Kursk' obnaruzhen predmet, pokhozhiy na ograzhdeniye rubki chuzhoy submariny, predpolozhitelno, britanskoy - voyennyye istochniki," Interfax, 21 August 2000.
(19) "Po dannym press-sluzhby Severnogo Flota, detalnogo obsledovaniya rayona katastrofy 'Kurska' ne provodilos," Interfax, 21 August 2000.
(20) "Voyennye obvinyayut britanskuyu podlodku v gibeli 'Kurska," Lenta.ru online edition, 21 August 2000, http://www.lenta.ru.
(21) "Anglichane vse otritsayut," Smi.ru online edition, 21 August 2000, http://www.smi.ru.
(22) Vladimir Temnyy, "Voyennaya tayna admiralov," Vesti.ru online edition, 21 August 2000, HYPERLINK "http://www.vesti.ru" http://www.vesti.ru; "Ubiytsu avianostsev utopila nasha raketa," Moskovskiye vedomosti online edition, 21 August 2000; in WPS Oborona I bezopasnost, 23 August 2000, No. 98.
(23) Gavrilenko and Gundarov; "Britanskiye mini-podlodki ne budet uchastvovat v spasatelnykh rabotakh v Barentsovom more - Klebanov."
(24) "Spaseniye utopayushchikh - del ruk " Utro.ru online edition, 21 August 2000, http://www.utro.ru.
(25) Igor Galichin, "Dose ubiytsy 'Kurska'," Segodnya online edition, 21 August 2000; Jill Dougherty, "Russian naval chief sees little hope for sub crew," CNN online edition, 19 August 2000, http://www.cnn.com.
(26) "Spaseniye utopayushchikh - del ruk " Utro.ru online edition, 21 August 2000, http://www.utro.ru.
(27) BBC Radio interview, 19 August 2000.
(28) "Serdtsa nashi s popavshimi v bedu," Krasnaya zvezda online edition, 17 August 2000; HYPERLINK "http://www.redstar.ru" http://www.redstar.ru; Margaret Litvin and Michael James, "Torpedo trouble?" ABCNews.com website, 19 August 2000, http://abcnews.go.com.
(29) "Spasateli Severnogo flota snova zafiksirovali zvukovyye signaly s podlodki 'Kursk'," Lenta.ru online edition, 17 August 2000, http://www.lenta.ru.
(30) Rolleiv Solholm, "Sub rescue mission: Salvage team racing towards 'Kursk'," The Norway Post online edition, 18 August 2000, http://www.norwaypost.com.
(31) "U.S. May Send Sub Rescue Experts to Russia - Cohen," Reuters, 18 August 2000.
(32) Oleg Odnokolenko, "Kontsy v vodu. Amerikanskaya submarina, taranivshaya 'Kursk', pryachetsya v Norvegii?" Segodnya, 18 August 2000, http://www.segodnya.ru.
(33) ArmsControl.ru Webpage, 19 August 2000, http://www.armscontrol.ru.
(34) Oleg Odnokolenko, "'Kursk' stolknulsya s britanskoy podlodkoy?" Segodnya online edition, 19 August 2000, http://www.segodnya.ru.
(35) "Komanduyushchiy Severnym Flotom schitayet, chto prichinoy vzryva na 'Kurske' moglo byt kak vneshnee, tak I vnutrennee vozdeystviye," Interfax, 18 August 2000.
(36) NORSAR Press Release, http://www.norsar.no/barentssea.html.
(37) "Kak ozhidayetsya, norvezhskoye sudno s vodolazami pribudet na mesto katastrofy rossiyskoy podlodki v pyatnitsu," Interfax, 17 August 2000.
(38) "I. Klebanov: Priznakov vnutrennego vzryva na lodke 'Kursk' ne obnaruzheno," RosBiznesKonsalting online edition, http://www.rbc.ru.
(39) "Versiya o stolknovenii 'Kurska' s drugim obyektom poluchayet vse bolshe podtverzhdeniy - ministr oborony RF," Interfax, 17 August 2000.
(40) "Veteran-podvodnik schitayet, chto prichinoy avarii APL 'Kursk' mog stat vzryv torpedy v pervom otseke submariny," Interfax, 17 August 2000.
(41) "Russian Submarine: British Rescue Team Leave Today for Norway," United Kingdom Ministry of Defense Press Service, 16 August 2000, HYPERLINK "http://www.mod.uk" http://www.mod.uk; "UK aids stricken sub," BBC News online edition, 16 August 2000, http://news.bbc.co.uk.
(42) "UK to help Russian sub rescue," BBC News online edition, 16 August 2000, http://news.bbc.co.uk.
(43) "Predstavitel Glavnogo shtaba VMF Rossii zayavil, chto v Barentsevom more edva ne byl poteryan spasatelnyy apparat," Interfax, 16 August 2000.
(44) "UK aids stricken sub," BBC News online edition, 16 August 2000, http://news.bbc.co.uk.
(45) Igor Kudrik, "Kursk sunk by finding shortfalls," Bellona Chronicle online edition, http:www.bellona.no.
(46) Igor Zhevelyuk, "Chto s lodkoy," Polyarnaya pravda online edition, 15 August 2000, http://www.press.murmansk.ru.
(47) "Chto s lodkoy;" John von Radowitz, "Russian Submariners Not Doomed Despite Gloomy Forecasts," Press Association Newsfile; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, http://web.lexis-nexis.com.
(48) A.D. Baker III, Combat Fleets of the World 2000-2001 (Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 2000).
(49) Nikolai Novichkov, "Reasons for Russian submarine accident unknown so far," ITAR-TASS, 15 August 2000; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, http://web.lexis-nexis.com.
(50) "Glavshtab VMF Rossii soobshchil tochnyye koordinaty mestonakhozhdeniya podlodki 'Kursk'," RosBiznesKonsalting, http://www.rbc.ru.
(51) "Rossiyskiye admiraly vyletayut v Bryussel dlya konsultatsiy s zarubezhnymi kollegami," Lenta.ru online edition, http://www.lenta.ru.
(52) Mikhail Kotov, "Spaseniye 'Kurska'. Vtoraya popytka," Gazeta.ru online edition,http://www.gazeta.ru; Igor Zhevelyuk, "'Kursk' v bede," Polyarnaya pravda online edition, 16 August 2000, http://www.press.murmansk.ru.
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