Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East

Missiles, NBC Weapons, and Conflict in the Middle East:
An Annotated Chronology[1]

Current WMD Middle East Information

Please note this section is no longer being updated. For the latest Middle East WMD information, please visit these links:

Country Profiles
Information on nuclear, biological & chemical weapons and missile programs, with details on capabilities, facilities, chronologies, and imports/exports.

CNS maintains these Country Profile databases for the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI).

Late 1920s (Italy, Libya)

Italian leader Benito Mussolini secretly authorizes the use of gas bombs against Libyan rebels.[2]

1935-1936 (Italy, Ethiopia)

During the Italo-Ethiopian War, Italian forces repeatedly attack Ethiopian soldiers and civilians with mustard gas. Italian forces are also reported to use tear gas, sneezing gas, and various asphyxiating agents. Italian leader Benito Mussolini authorizes the use of chemical weapons (CW) on 16 December 1935, with the first attack occurring on 23 December when Italian Air Force planes spray mustard gas and drop bombs filled with mustard agent on Ethiopian soldiers and villagers in the Takkaze fords.[3] The full extent of CW use by Italy during this war is unclear. However, a 13 April 1936 letter from the Ethiopian delegate to the League of Nations to the Secretary-General alleges that Italy made 20 "poison gas attacks," with mustard gas being the agent "most frequently used."[4]

1963-1967 (Egypt, Yemen)

Egypt employs chemical weapons in attacks against royalist forces in the Yemen civil war.[5] Reports indicate that Egypt uses mustard gas, phosgene, and tear gas in the attacks.[6] Egypt uses Soviet-built AOKh-25 aerial bombs to deliver phosgene, and Soviet-built KHAB-200 R5 aerial bombs as well as artillery shells abandoned by British forces after World War I to deliver mustard gas.[7] Some reports also suggest that Egypt uses a nerve agent.[8]

May 1967 (Egypt, Israel)

Egyptian fighter aircraft conduct two reconnaissance flights over Israel's nuclear plutonium production reactor at Dimona.[9]

June-December 1967 (Israel, Egypt)

Some reports claim that following the Six Day War (5-10 June), Israeli forces capture Egyptian chemical weapons, including nerve gas, mustard gas, and phosgene, which are stockpiled in the Sinai peninsula. However, a subsequent report states that an Israeli source denied that Israel captured Egyptian CW equipment.[10]

21 October 1967 (Egypt, Israel)

An Egyptian fast patrol boat fires SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship cruise missiles at the Israeli destroyer Eilat, causing several casualties and sinking the ship.[11]

1972-73 (Egypt, Syria)

Prior to the October 1973 Yom Kippur War, Egypt sends a small quantity of chemical weapons to Syria.[12] Although it is unclear whether the transfer occurred in 1972 or 1973, a March 1993 article in the Lebanese journal Istratigyia claims that in 1972, Egypt agreed to supply Syria with a limited quantity of chemical weapons for $6 million.[13] These weapons are said to include artillery shells and possibly aerial bombs filled with mustard agent, and may also include sarin-filled artillery shells and aerial bombs.[14]

6 October-November 1973 (Egypt, Israel, Syria)

During the Yom Kippur War, Egyptian armed forces fire FROG-7 artillery rockets and Scud-B ballistic missiles at Israeli targets. It is unclear how many missiles Egypt launches, but they reportedly cause only minor damage to Israeli forces and facilities.[15]

In the opening stages of the war, Israeli and Syrian naval vessels exchange fire off the coast of Latakia, Syria. A Syrian minesweeper and three missile boats are sunk by Gabriel ship-to-ship cruise missiles fired from a task force of six Israeli navy ships. The Israeli ships are unharmed by SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship cruise missiles fired by the Syrian Osa-and Komar-class missile boats.[16] Israeli missile boats also sink five Egyptian missile boats during the war.[17] Egyptian forces fire SSC-2b Samlet anti-ship cruise missiles at four Israeli navy ships, but do not hit their targets. However, the Egyptian air force reportedly achieves some success with the approximately 25 AS-5 Kelt cruise missiles it fires at Israeli forces.[18]

1980-88 (Iran, Iraq)

During the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq War, both countries make extensive use of unguided rockets and ballistic missiles, including barrages on population centers. During the early years of the war, Iran's use of rockets and missiles is limited. It increases significantly after 1985, following importation of Scud-B ballistic missiles from Libya and North Korea. Iran is believed to fire several hundred rockets and nearly 100 Scud-B missiles at Iraqi population centers, including Baghdad, after 1985.[19] Iraq's use of rocket and missile began earlier, and was more extensive than Iran's. While exact figures on the number of missiles fired by Iraq are classified, Iraq is known to have launched over 500 Scud-B and al-Hussein ballistic missiles during the course of the war."[20]

Both countries also conduct hundreds of attacks on each others' port facilities and international shipping in the Persian Gulf. As of 12 October 1987, Iran had carried out 214 attacks on shipping, while Iraq had conducted 181. Ships from at least 36 countries, including Iran, were targeted in the attacks. The attacks included the use of anti-ship cruise missiles, unguided rockets, bombs, grenades, gunfire, and mines. Iraqi attacks are notable for their use of French-built Exocet anti-ship cruise missiles beginning on 27 March 1984. Beginning in September 1987, Iran begins to make use of Chinese-built Silkworm anti-ship cruise missiles to strike ships as well as Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil facilities.[21]

30 September 1980 (Iran, Iraq)

During an Iranian attack on Iraqi electrical power plants, two US-supplied F-4 fighter aircraft bomb Iraq's Osirak nuclear research center. According to French embassy officials in Baghdad, the attack damages some auxiliary buildings at the site but does not damage the French-built Tammuz-1 power reactor.[22]

7 June 1981 (Israel, Iraq)

Israel uses US-supplied F-16 fighter aircraft to destroy Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor.[23] Israeli leaders believe that Iraq plans to use the reactor to obtain fissile material for producing nuclear weapons. A French technician working at the plant is reportedly killed during the raid.[24]

1984-88 (Iran, Iraq)

During the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq War, Iraq repeatedly attacks Iranian troops with chemical weapons (CW). The first allegations of Iraqi CW attacks come in November 1980, when Tehran Radio reports Iraqi CW attacks at Susangerd.[25] On 3 November 1983, Iran makes its first official complaint to the United Nations regarding Iraqi CW attacks.[26] Iraq is confirmed to have used mustard and nerve agents against Iranian forces from 1983-1988.[27] Although Iranian leaders foreswear retaliating in kind, Iran allegedly uses CW against Iraqi forces on a limited scale beginning in 1984 or 1985. Iran is believed to conduct initial CW attacks by firing captured Iraqi CW munitions at Iraqi forces. However, by the end of the war Iran reportedly employs domestically produced CW munitions against Iraqi soldiers.[28]

25 February-March 1984 (Iraq, Iran)

Iraqi warplanes use French-supplied Exocet anti-ship cruise missiles to attack Iranian oil facilities and international shipping in the Persian Gulf.[29]

24 March 1984 (Iraq, Iran)

Iraqi warplanes attack Iran's Bushehr nuclear power complex. The attack reportedly does not damage the reactor under construction.[30]

12 February 1985 (Iraq, Iran)

Iraqi warplanes attack Iran's Bushehr nuclear power facility, killing one person and wounding several according to an Iranian embassy statement. Iraq denies that the attack took place.[31]

4 March 1985 (Iran, Iraq)

Iran's IRNA press agency reports another attack by Iraqi warplanes on the Bushehr nuclear power facility.[32]

15 April 1986 (Libya, Italy)

In retaliation for US airstrikes on Libyan facilities, Libya fires two or three Scud-B ballistic missiles at a US Coast Guard navigation station on the Italian island of Lampedusa in the Mediterranean. The missiles land in the sea short of the island and cause no damage.[33]

17 May 1987 (Iraq, United States)

An Iraqi Mirage F-1 warplane fires two Exocet anti-ship cruise missiles at the US Navy frigate Stark in the Persian Gulf. The attack, termed an "accident" by Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, severely damages the ship and kills 37 sailors.[34]

September 1987 (Libya, Chad)

In the final phases of its military intervention in Chad, Libya reportedly uses Iranian-supplied chemical weapons against Chadian troops.[35]

17 November 1987 (Iraq, Iran)

Iraqi warplanes attack the Bushehr nuclear reactor complex, reportedly injuring several West German engineers working at the site and killing one.[36] However, an Iraqi military communiqué says that the attack was on "the Iranian industrial and chemical production complex at Bushehr," some 37 miles from the reactor complex.[37]

16 February 1988 (Iraq, Iran)

Iraqi warplanes attack the Kurdish city of Halabja, Iraq, with mustard and nerve agents, killing up to 5,000 people, mostly civilians.[38]

18 April 1988 (United States, Iran)

The United States Navy attacks Iranian offshore oil platforms in the Persian Gulf in retaliation for a 17 April mine blast that damaged the USS Wainwright. During the attack, an Iranian patrol boat fires a US-built Harpoon anti-ship cruise missile at the Wainwright, which responds by launching two Harpoons that sink the Iranian ship. In a separate incident, US forces use Harpoon missiles and laser-guided bombs to severely damage the Iranian frigate Sahand after it fires at US Navy aircraft.[39]

20 April 1988 (Iran, Kuwait)

Iran fires a Scud-B ballistic missile at Kuwait. The missile lands near the Wafra oil field, but causes no damage.[40]

1990s (Sudan)

After taking power in 1989, the government of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir is accused several times of using mustard gas by opposition forces fighting to oust the Bashir government. The allegations are not independently confirmed.[41] After 1995, the opposition Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and Sudanese National Democratic Alliance (NDA), and Ugandan security officials repeatedly assert that the Sudanese government produces CW with Iranian and/or Iraqi assistance, and uses mustard gas in attacks on civilians and SPLA forces in the Nuba mountains region of Sudan.[42]

17 January-28 February 1991 (Iraq, Bahrain, Israel, Saudi Arabia, United States)

During the 1990-91 Gulf War, Iraq launches over 90 conventionally-armed al-Hussein and al-Hijara ballistic missiles at targets in Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain. Iraq launches 43 of the missiles at Israel and a similar number at Saudi Arabia.[43] Iraq also fires an undetermined number of either indigenously produced Fao-70, or Chinese-built Silkworm cruise missiles at naval targets during the Gulf War; these do not cause any damage to Coalition forces.[44]

US Navy surface ships and submarines fire 288 Tomahawk cruise missiles at Iraqi targets. US Air Force B-52 aircraft fire 35 AGM-86 cruise missiles at Iraq.[45] US forces also fire 32 MGM-140 ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System) ballistic missiles at Iraqi logistics areas, missile sites, and rocket and artillery installations, as well as approximately seven AGM-84 Harpoon/SLAM air-launched cruise missiles at Iraqi ground targets.[46]

17 January 1993 (United States, Iraq)

The United States launches 45 Tomahawk cruise missiles at the Zaafaraniyeh industrial complex in Baghdad, due to the suspicions of United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) weapons inspectors that it is involved in producing uranium enrichment equipment and missile components.[47]

26 June 1993 (United States, Iraq)

US President Bill Clinton orders the launch of 23 Tomahawk cruise missiles at intelligence facilities in Baghdad, Iraq, in response to an alleged Iraqi plot to assassinate former US President George Bush during his visit to Kuwait in April 1993.[48]

May 1994 (Yemen)

In renewed fighting in Yemen's civil war, southern forces fire approximately 20 Scud-B ballistic missiles at the northern capital of Sana.[49] In late May, northern forces fire surface-to-surface missiles at the southern capital of Aden. It is uncertain how many and what type of missiles are fired by the northern forces, and at least one report suggests that they were probably short-range artillery rockets rather than ballistic missiles.[50]

7 November 1994 (Iran, Iraq)

Iran fires up to four Scud ballistic missiles at a military camp in Ashraf, Iraq, used by guerrilla forces of the exiled Mujahideen Khalq opposition group. Teheran radio reports that the attack causes heavy casualties at the camp, located some 80km inside Iraq.[51]

3-4 September 1996 (United States, Iraq)

Following the August 1996 attack on Irbil by Iraqi forces entering the Kurdish safe- haven zone in northern Iraq, the United States fires 44 Tomahawk cruise missiles at eight Iraqi surface-to-air missile sites and seven air-defense command-and-control facilities.[52]

20 August 1998 (United States, Sudan)

US Navy warships in the Red Sea launch more than a dozen Tomahawk cruise missiles at the al-Shifa Pharmaceutical Factory in Khartoum, Sudan.[53] According to US officials, the facility is involved in production of a precursor for VX nerve agent.[54] Subsequent reports indicate that the facility was probably not involved in CW production.[55]

16-19 December 1998 (United States, Iraq)

In response to Iraq's refusal to cooperate with the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM), the United States and United Kingdom conduct airstrikes and missile attacks on 100 Iraqi military sites. US Navy ships fire more than 325 RGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missiles, while US Air Force B-52 aircraft fire 90 AGM-109 Tomahawks. US Secretary of Defense William Cohen says that the attacks "degraded [Iraqi President] Saddam Hussein's ability to deliver chemical and biological weapons."[56]


Michael Barletta and Erik Jorgensen, May 1999.
© Center for Nonproliferation Studies,
Monterey Institute of International Studies.


Sources:

[1] This chronology summarizes public information regarding the use of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons and ballistic and cruise missiles in the Middle East, as well as conventional military attacks on related facilities in the region. In many cases, incidents involving NBC weapons or missiles are not well documented, controversial, remain secretive, and cannot be verified independently. This chronology does not include covert operations against NBC and missile facilities, as secrecy precludes reliable reporting.

[2] Edward M. Spiers, Chemical Warfare (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1986). Citing Spiers, Burck and Flowerree say that the Libyans were probably the victims of mustard gas attacks. They cite a second source which reports that 24 mustard gas bombs were dropped on a Libyan oasis in 1930. See Gordon M. Burck and Charles C. Flowerree, International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), pp. 267, 306 note 1.

[3] Angelo Del Boca and P.D. Cummins, translator, The Ethiopian War 1935-41 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), pp. 78-84, 109, 120. George W. Baer, Test Case: Italy, Ethiopia, and the League of Nations (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1976), pp. 176, 180, 237-238.

[4] League of Nations, Official Journal, 4 (April 1936), document 1592, pp. 479-80; in Angelo Del Boca and P.D. Cummins, translator, The Ethiopian War 1935-41 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), p. 109 note 22.

[5] Peter Herby, The Chemical Weapons Convention and Arms Control in the Middle East (Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, 1992), pp. 21-22.

[6] "Chronology of Events: Nonconventional Weapons and Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East," Arms Control & Proliferation in the Middle East, (Washington, DC: Foundation for Middle East Peace, November 1996), p. 6.

[7] Dany Shoham, "Chemical and Biological Weapons in Egypt," The Nonproliferation Review, 5(3) p.1. Douglas Davis, "Egypt to PM: Don't Come Empty-Handed," Jerusalem Post, 19 December 1997, p. 3; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe), 22 December 1997.

[8] Gordon M. Burck and Charles C. Flowerree, International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), pp. 230-231. E. J. Hogendoorn, "A Chemical Weapons Atlas," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, September-October 1997, p. 37.

According to chemical weapons expert Milton Leitenberg, some of the nerve agent reportedly used by Egyptian forces may actually have consisted of hand grenades fitted with containers of organophosphate pesticides. Milton Leitenberg, letter to David Ignatius of the Washington Post, February 20, 1989.

[9] "Chronology of Events: Nonconventional Weapons and Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East," Arms Control & Proliferation in the Middle East, (Washington, DC: Foundation for Middle East Peace, November 1996), p. 6.

[10] Gordon M. Burck and Charles C. Flowerree, International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), pp. 223-24. Dany Shoham, "Chemical and Biological Weapons in Egypt," The Nonproliferation Review, 5(3) p. 2.

[11] Amira Ibrahim, "It All Started With the 'Eilat'; Egypt Celebrates Navy Day," Al Ahram Weekly, 21 October 1993; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://lexis-nexis.com/universe). Anthony H. Cordesman and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War Volume I: The Arab-Israeli Conflicts, 1973-1989 (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), pp. 19, 104. "Missile Use in Post-WW II Conflicts," Centre for Defence and International Security Studies, 1997 (http://www.cdiss.org/use.htm).

[12] Ahmed S. Hashim, Chemical and Biological Weapons and Deterrence Case Study 1: Syria (Alexandria, VA: Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 1998), p. 5. "Devil's Brews Briefing: Syria," Centre for Defence and International Security Studies, 1996 (http://www.cdiss.org/cbwnb5.htm). Michael Eisenstadt, "Syria's Strategic Weapons," Jane's Intelligence Review, April 1993, p. 169. Douglas Davis, "Egypt to PM: Don't Come Empty-Handed," Jerusalem Post, 19 December 199, p. 3; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://lexis-nexis.com/universe), 22 December 1997. Anthony H. Cordesman, "Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East: National Efforts, War Fighting Capabilities, Weapons Lethality, Terrorism and Arms Control Implications," (Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 1998), p. 21. Gordon M. Burck and Charles C. Flowerree,International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), pp. 208-210, 224.

[13] Dany Shoham, "Chemical and Biological Weapons in Egypt," The Nonproliferation Review, 5(3) pp. 2, 10 endnote #19.

[14] "Dany Shoham, "Chemical and Biological Weapons in Egypt," The Nonproliferation Review, 5(3) p. 2. Ahmed S. Hashim, Chemical and Biological Weapons and Deterrence Case Study 1: Syria (Alexandria, VA: Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 1998), p. 5.

[15] Anthony H. Cordesman and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War Volume I: The Arab-Israeli Conflicts, 1973-1989 (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), p. 68. "Chronology of Events: Nonconventional Weapons and Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East," Arms Control & Proliferation in the Middle East, (Washington, DC: Foundation for Middle East Peace, November 1996), p. 6. William C. Potter and Harlan W. Jencks, The International Missile Bazaar: The New Suppliers' Network (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994), pp. 28-29.

According to one estimate, the Egyptian attacks involved "no more than a few dozen weapons." See Aaron Karp, Ballistic Missile Proliferation: The Politics and Technics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 45.

[16] "The Battle of Latakia," The Israeli Sea Corps, 12 October 1996, (http://www.usa.pipeline.com/~albatros/latakia.htm).

[17] "The Israel Navy Throughout Israel's Wars," Israel Defense Forces, Spokesperson's Office, Information Branch, 1998, (http://www.idf.il/English/UNITS/Navy/history.htm).

[18] "SSC-2b 'Samlet' (S-2 Sopka 4k87)," Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems 26, (Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1998). "AS-5 'Kelt' (KSR-2/Kh-11)," Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems 26, (Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1998).

[19] Joseph S. Bermudez Jr., "Iran's Missile Development," pp. 52-56, 61; in William C. Potter and Harlan W. Jencks, eds., The International Missile Bazaar: The New Suppliers Network (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994). Aaron Karp, Ballistic Missile Proliferation: The Politics and Technics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 49. "Chronology of Events: Nonconventional Weapons and Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East," Arms Control & Proliferation in the Middle East, (Washington, DC: Foundation for Middle East Peace, November 1996), p. 7. "Missile Use in Post-WW II Conflicts," Centre for Defence and International Security Studies, 1997, (http://www.cdiss.org/use.htm). James N. Miller, "Countering the Proliferation and Use of WMD," presentation at the Seventh Carnegie International Nonproliferation Conference, Washington D.C., 11 January 1999, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, (http://www.ceip.org.programs/npp/Powerpoint/Miller/sld001.htm).

[20] Interview with Tim McCarthy, Senior Research Associate, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey, California, 11 May 1999. Anthony H. Cordesman and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), pp. 366-67.

[21] Anthony H. Cordesman and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), pp. 311-12, 327-40.

[22] Henry Tanner, "Khomeini Dismisses Truce Offer, Vowing a Fight to the End," New York Times, 1 October 1980, p. A1; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). Richard L. Homan, "Iran Again Bombs Baghdad as Diplomatic Efforts Stall; Iran Bombs Iraqi Nuclear Site," Washington Post, 1 October 1980, p. A1; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "The Middle East War is Stalled and So Is Peace," New York Times, 5 October 1980, Section 4; p. 1; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Iran Attacks Iraqi Nuclear Reactor," (http://www.ndu.edu/inss/macnair/mcnair41/4irq.html); in "History's Lessons for Preemptive Counter-Proliferation Decisions," McNair Paper Number 41, "Radical Responses to Radical Regimes: Evaluating Preemptive Counter-Proliferation," Institute for National Strategic Studies, May 1995, (http://www.ndu.edu/inss/macnair/mcnair41/41his.html).

[23] Seymour M. Hersh, The Sampson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy (New York: Random House, 1991), pp. 8-10. "Israeli and Iraqi Statements on Raid on Nuclear Plant," New York Times, 9 June 1981, p. A8; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[24] David K. Shipler, "Prime Minister Begin Defends Raid on Iraqi Nuclear Reactor; Pledges to Thwart a New 'Holocaust," New York Times, 10 June 1981, p. A1; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[25] Julian Perry Robinson and Jozef Goldblat, "Chemical Warfare in the Iraq-Iran War," SIPRI Fact Sheet, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, May 1984, (http://www.sipri.se/cbw/research/factsheet-1984.html).

[26] Peter Herby, The Chemical Weapons Convention and Arms Control in the Middle East (Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, 1992), p. 24.

[27] "Fact File: Chemical Weapons in the Middle East," Arms Control Today, May 1991, p. 26. Robin M. Black and Graham S. Pearson, "Unequivocal Evidence," Chemistry in Britain, July 1993, pp. 584-87. Robin M. Black, Raymond J. Clarke, Robert W. Read, and Michael T.J. Reid, "Application of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry to the Analysis of Chemical Warfare Samples, Found to Contain Residues of the Nerve Agent Sarin, Sulphur Mustard and Their Degradation Products," Journal of Chromatography, 662 (1994), pp. 301-321.

[28] Peter Herby, The Chemical Weapons Convention and Arms Control in the Middle East (Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, 1992), p. 25. Gordon M. Burck and Charles C. Flowerree, International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), pp. 237-245. E. J. Hogendoorn, "A Chemical Weapons Atlas," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1997, 53(5): p. 37. "Chemical Weapons in the Middle East," Arms Control Today, May 1991, pp. 26-27. Michael Eisenstadt, Chemical and Biological Weapons and Deterrence Case Study 4: Iran (Alexandria, VA: Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 1998), p. 2.

[29] Anthony H. Cordesman and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), pp. 191-94. Shahram Chubin and Charles Tripp, Iran and Iraq at War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988), pp. 134-35. Hanns W. Maull and Otto Pick eds., The Gulf War: Regional and International Dimensions (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989), p. 194. Dilip Hiro, The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict (London: Grafton Books, 1989), p. 129.

[30] "German Firm Casts Doubt on Reported Attack on Iran Plant," Reuters, 30 May 1984; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Iran Reports Attack on Nuclear Reactor Site," Reuters, 30 May 1984; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Agency Iranian Complaint of Iraqi Attack on Nuclear Site," Associated Press, 30 May 1984; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Iraq Destroys Iran's Bushehr Reactor," (http://www.ndu.edu/inss/macnair/mcnair41/41rea.html); in "History's Lessons for Preemptive Counter-Proliferation Decisions," McNair Paper Number 41, "Radical Responses to Radical Regimes: Evaluation Preemptive Counter-Proliferation," Institute for National Strategic Studies, May 1995, (http://www.ndu.edu/inss/macnair/mcnair41/41his.html).

[31] "Iran Says Nuclear Site Attacked," Washington Post, 14 Feburary 1985, p. A29; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Iraq Denies Attack," Washington Post, 15 February 1985, p. A31; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Iraqi Bombs Kill 11 People, Strike N-Plant, Iran Reports," San Diego Union Tribune, 4 March 1985, p. A9; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[32] "Iraqi Bombs Kill 11 People, Strike N-Plant, Iran Reports," San Diego Union Tribune, 4 March 1985, p. A9; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[33] Loren Jenkins, "Libyan Missile Fire Protested by Italy," Washington Post, 16 April 1986, p. A23; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). E. J. Dionne, Jr., "Italian Isle, Site of U.S. Base, is Fearful of Qaddafi's Anger," New York Times, 27 May 1986, p. Al; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). Judith Miller, "Italian Island, a Libyan Target, Escapes Unscathed," New York Times, 16 April 1986, p. A15; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). Aaron Karp, Ballistic Missile Proliferation: The Politics and Technics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 45.

[34] Anthony H. Cordesman and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), p. 289. Dilip Hiro, The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict (London: Grafton Books, 1989), p. 186. John H. Cushman Jr., "Attack on the Stark: Answers to Key Questions Are Beginning to Emerge," New York Times, 21 May 1987, p. A18; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[35] Joshua Sinai, "Libya's Pursuit of Weapons of Mass Destruction," The Nonproliferation Review, 1997, 4(3) p. 92. W. Andrew Terrill, "Libya and the Quest for Chemical Weapons," Conflict Quarterly, 1994, 14(1) p. 55. E. J. Hogendoorn, "A Chemical Weapons Atlas," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1997, 53(5) p. 37. Robert Waller, Chemical and Biological Weapons and Deterrence Case Study 2: Libya (Alexandria, VA: Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 1998), p. 7. E.A. Wayne, "Libya Seeks Chemical Weapons in War Against Chad, US Charges," Christian Science Monitor, 5 January 1988, p. 1. Gordon M. Burck and Charles C. Flowerree, International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), p. 270. "Chronology of Events: Nonconventional Weapons and Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East," Arms Control & Proliferation in the Middle East, (Washington, DC: Foundation for Middle East Peace, November 1996), p. 6.

[36] Anthony H. Cordesman and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), p. 520.

[37] "Iran Says Iraqis Raided a Nuclear Plant," New York Times, 18 November 1987, p. A3; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

Iran reported another attack on Bushehr by Iraqi warplanes on 19 November 1987, however, Iraq did not confirm the attack. See "New Attack on Iranian Nuclear Plant is Reported," New York Times, 20 November 1987, p. A5; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[38] Gary Sick, "The United States and the Persian Gulf;" in Hanns W. Maull and Otto Pick, eds., The Gulf War: Regional and International Dimensions (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989), pp. 134-35.

Estimates on the total number of dead vary but are generally range between 3,000 and 5,000. See Dilip Hiro, The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict (London: Grafton Books, 1989), p. 201. Human Rights Watch, Iraq's Crime of Genocide: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), p. 262. S. J. Lundin, "Chemical and Biological Warfare: Developments in 1988;" in SIPRI Yearbook 1989: World Armaments and Disarmaments, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 100.

Some reports suggest that Iranian forces also used chemical weapons during the attack on Halabja. See Anthony H. Cordesman and Abraham R. Wagner, The Lessons of Modern War Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990), p. 517. David B. Ottaway, "In Mideast Warfare With a New Nature; Chemical Arms, Ballistic Missiles Mark New Nature of Mideast Warfare," Washington Post, 4 April 1988; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

According to Cordesman and Wagner, following Iraqi mustard gas attacks on Halabja, fleeing Kurds may have been mistaken for Iraqi troops and bombarded with hydrogen cyanide (AC) artillery shells by Iranian forces.

[39] "Warren Richey, "US Sinks One Iranian Vessel, Damages Two Others," Christian Science Monitor, 19 April 1988, p. 32; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). Lionel Barber, "Reagan Threatens Iran with Further Action as US Destroys Oil Rigs," Financial Times (London), 19 April 1988; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[40] Patrick E. Tyler, "Iranian Missile Hits Kuwaiti Desert Near U.S.-Run Oil Field; Elated Nation Awaits Hostages' Return," Washington Post, 21 April 1988, p. A25; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). Warren Richey, "Iranian Missile Makes a Point," Christian Science Monitor, 22 April 1988, p. 12; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[41] Gordon M. Burck and Charles C. Flowerree, International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), pp. 471-472. Barry Shelby, "Sudan's Weapons," World Press Review, February 1989, p. 41. Deborah Pugh, "Sudan May Have Chemical Weapons," The Guardian (London), 13 August 1990, p. 2. INA (Baghdad), 25 December 1988; in FBIS-NES-88-248 (27 December 1988). Radio SPLA, 18 April 1991; in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 18 April 1991. INA (Baghdad), 25 August 1990; in FBIS-NES-90-166 (27 August 1990).

[42] "London Conference Resolutions," Sudan News and Views 16 (December 1995); "Opposition Radio Says State Planning to Construct Chemical Weapons Factory," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 April 1996. "Sudanese Alliance Forces Leader Interviewed," Al-Majallah (London), 5-11 January 1997; in FBIS FTS19970317001393 (17 March 1997). "Opposition Says Iran Supplies Heavy, Chemical Weapons," Radio France International, 27 January 1997; in FBIS FTS19970127001355 (27 January 1997). "Opposition Says Iran Giving Government Chemical Weapons," Voice of Sudan, 30 January 1997; in FBIS-TAC-98-208 (27 July 1998); "Opposition Radio Says Government Receiving Arms from Iran," BBC Worldwide Monitoring, 30 January 1997. "SPLA Leader says Iran Supplies Government with Chemical Weapons," MENA, 2 February 1997; in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 2 February 1997. "Opposition Says Iran Sent Tanks, CW to Khartoum," MENA, 26 January 1997; in FBIS FTS19970422001385 (25 March 1998). "Chemical Weapons Factory Reportedly Built Near Khartoum," MENA, 16 July 1997; in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 July 1997. "Uganda Paper Says Sudan Sends 60,000 Troops to Defend Juba," Sunday Vision (Kampala), 21 September 1997, p. 2. "Garang Says War in South `Over'; Eastern Front `Next Target," Al-Bayan (Dubai), 28 June 1997; in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 28 June 1997. Jihad Salim, Al-Watan Al-'Arabi (Paris), 31 October 1997; in FBIS FTS19971118000479 (18 November 1997). Emmy Allio, "Sudan Has Poison Gas Plant Near Uganda," Africa News Online, 21 November 1997 (http://www.africanews.org). "Manufacture of Non-Conventional Weapons in Khartoum," Vigilance Soudan, English edition, 1st Quarter 1998 (http://perso.club-internet.fr/vigilsd/articles/ba2/ab-2-g.htm) Human Rights Watch, Global Trade, Local Impact: Arms Transfers to All Sides in the Civil War in Sudan (August 1998) (http://www.hrw.org/hrw/reports98/sudan/).

[43] Interview with Tim McCarthy, Senior Research Associate, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey, California, 11 May 1999. Al-'Arab Al-Yawm (Amman), 12 November 1998; in FBIS FTS19981129000037 (12 November 1998). "Chronology of Events: Nonconventional Weapons and Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East," Arms Control & Proliferation in the Middle East, (Washington, DC: Foundation for Middle East Peace, November 1996), p. 7. "Missile Use in Post-WW II Conflicts," Centre for Defence and International Security Studies, 1997 (http://www.cdiss.org/use.htm). James N. Miller, "Countering the Proliferation and Use of WMD," presentation at the Seventh Carnegie International Nonproliferation Conference, Washington D.C., 11 January 1999, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, (http://www.ceip.org.programs/npp/Powerpoint/Miller/sld001.htm). Aaron Karp, Ballistic Missile Proliferation the Politics and Technics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 49. Paul Abrahams and David White, "The Gulf War; Retaliatory Attack on Bahrain Falls Short - Unconfirmed Reports Early this Morning State That the Iraqi Scud Missile Bases Have Been Destroyed," Financial Times (London), 17 January 1991, Section I; p. 3.

[44] "FAW 70/150/200," Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems 25, (Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1998).

[45] William Allen, "Navy's High-Tech Tomahawks May Have Ended Up As Sitting Ducks," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 24 February 1991, p. 4b; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Fact Sheet: AGM-86B/C Missiles," United States Air Force, (http://www.af.mil/news/factsheets/AGM_86B_C_Missiles.html). "Cruise Missiles in the Gulf War," Centre for Defence and International Security Studies, 1996, (http://www.cdiss.org/cmgulf.htm).

[46] "MGM-140 ATACMS," Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems 26, (Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1998). "AGM/RGM/UGM-84 Harpoon/SLAM," Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems 26, (Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1998).

[47] Eric Schmitt, "Raid on Iraq; Path of U.S. Missiles Brings Debate about Their Ability," New York Times, 19 January 1993, p. A8; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). John Hanchette, "U.S. Confirms Damage to Baghdad Hotel," Chicago Sun-Times, 19 January 1993, p. 16; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[48] Marie Colvin, "Iraq Unscathed by US Missile Raid," Sunday Times (London), 4 July 1993; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Iraq Vows to Avenge U.S. Missile Attack; Marchers in Baghdad Denounce Clinton," Washington Post, 29 June 1993, p. A14; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). John Lancaster, "U.S. Calls Baghdad Raid a Qualified Success; Intelligence Complex Hit Hard; 3 Errant Missiles Strike Houses," Washington Post, 28 June 1998, p. A1; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[49] Christine Hauser, "Aden Obtained Scud Missiles from Moscow," Reuters, 11 May 1994; in Executive News Service, 11 May 1994. "Missile Strike on Yemeni Capital Kills 13," The Herald (Glasgow), 25 May 1994, p. 4; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe), 26 May 1994. Aaron Karp, Ballistic Missile Proliferation: The Politics and Technics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 46.

[50] "Yemenis Fire Missiles at Aden as Battle Continues," Washington Post, 29 May 1994, p. A49; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe), 29 May 1994. "Two Missiles Slam into Aden, Suburbs," The Sun (Baltimore), 29 May 1994, p. 17A; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe), 20 September 1994. "Rocket Debris Kills 1; Injures 6 in Yemen," Los Angeles Times, 29 May 1994, p. A9; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe), 30 May 1994. David Hirst, "North Yemen Offensive Defies UN Ceasefire Call," The Guardian (London), 3 June 1994, p. 11; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe), 3 June 1994. Eric Watkins, "North Yemen Missile Wounds 20 in Aden," Financial Times, 3 June 1994, p. 4; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe), 3 June 1994. Aaron Karp, Ballistic Missile Proliferation: The Politics and Technics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 46.

[51] Leon Barkho, "Iran Missiles Strike Iraq Guerrilla Camp; Border Clash Cited in Attack," Chicago Sun-Times, 7 November 1994, p. 27; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Iran Fires Missiles at Rebel Base in Iraq," New York Times, 7 November 1994, p. A6; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). "Iranian Jets Raid Kurds in Iraq," Financial Times (London), 10 November 1994, p. 6; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe).

[52] "Attack Was Blow to Iraq's Defenses; But Saddam May Emerge Unscathed, Experts Warn," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 7 September 1996, p. 3A; in Lexis-Nexis, (http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe). United States Department of Defense News Briefing, 6 September 1996, (http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Sep1996/t090696_t0906asd.html). United States Department of Defense, "Chronology: From Desert Storm to Desert Fox," (http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/desert_fox/timeline.html).

[53] Russell Watson and John Barry, "Our Target Was Terror," Newsweek, 31 August 1998, pp. 24, 26. David A. Fulghum, "Secrecy about Raids Hints More to Come," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 31 August 1998, p. 30. Richard J. Newman, "America Fights Back," U.S. News & World Report, 31 August 1998, p. 38.

[54] Jacquelyn S. Porth, "U.S. Has Chemical Weapons-Related Soil Sample From Sudan Plant," United States Information Agency, 26 August 1998, (http://www.usia.gov/topical/pol/terror/98082502.htm).

[55] For a comprehensive analysis of chemical weapons allegations and open-source evidence regarding the Sudan, see: Michael Barletta, "Chemical Weapons in the Sudan: Allegations and Evidence," The Nonproliferation Review Fall 1998, 6 (1), pp. 115-36, http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/npr/vol06/61/barlet61.pdf). See also: Lois Ember, "Soil Sample Key to U.S. Missile Strike in Sudan," Chemical and Engineering News, 31 August 1998, pp. 6-7. Paul Richter, "Sudan Attack Claims Faulty, U.S. Admits," Los Angeles Times, 1 September 1998. Vernon Loeb and Bradley Graham, "Sudan Plant Was Probed Months Before Attack," Washington Post, 1 September 1998. Tim Weiner and James Risen, "Decision to Strike Factory in Sudan Based on Surmise Inferred From Evidence," New York Times, 21 September 1998, p. A1. Seymour M. Hersh, "Annals of National Security: The Missiles of August," New Yorker, 12 October 1998, pp. 34-41. Samuel R. Berger, "Why the U.S. Bombed," Washington Times, 16 October 1998, p. 21. Daniel Pearl, " Sudan to Allow U.N. to Investigate Any Alleged Chemical-Arm Site," Wall Street Journal, 16 October 1998, p. 13. Karl Vick, "Many in Sudan Dispute Plant's Tie with Bomber," Washington Post, 10/22/98, p. 29. Daniel Pearl, "In Sudan Bombing, 'Evidence' Depends On Who Is Viewing It," Wall Street Journal, 28 October 98, p. 1. Glenn Zorpette with Steven J. Frank, "Patent Blunder," Scientific American, November 1998, p. 42. James Risen and David Johnston, "Experts Find No Arms Chemicals at Bombed Sudan Plant," New York Times, 9 February 1999, p. 1. Sheila MacVicar, "Blinded by (Bad) Science?" ABC News, 10 February 1999, (http://www.abcnes.com). Maureen Rouhi, "No Trace of Nerve Gas Precursor Found at Bombed Sudan Plant," Chemical and Engineering News, 15 February 1999, pp. 11-12.

[56] Linda D. Kozaryn, "Four Nights; 100 Targets," American Forces Press Service, 21 December 1998, (http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Dec1998/n12211998_9812212.html). Alexander Nicoll, "US and UK Catalogue Damage to Baghdad's Military Machine: Military Targets Attacks on Sites That Control Weapons of Mass Destruction," Financial Times (London), 21 December 1998, p. 2.


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