Country Profile: Brazil (Observer)


The Federative Republic of Brazil is the largest South American country, which borders all other countries on the continent except Chile and Ecuador. Independence was achieved in 1822 and today Brazil is a democratic federal republic.

Capital: Brasília

Brazil currently has four operation nuclear research reactors. Two are pool-type reactors (IEA-R1 and IPEN/MB-1) operated by Brazil’s Nuclear Energy & Research Institute, or IPEN. These are used for isotope production, neutron scattering, activation analysis, geochronology, and education & training. Additionally, Brazil has a TRIGA Mark-1 graphite reactor (IPR-R1) managed by the Center for Technological Development for isotope production, activation analysis, and neutron radiography. Finally, the National Commission on Nuclear Energy operates an Argonaut reactor (ARGONAUTA) for neutron scattering, isotope production, and education & training.

About 3% of Brazil’s energy grid is produced by nuclear power. At the Angra dos-Reis nuclear power plant, Brazil has two operational units: ANGRA-1 and ANGRA-2. Both are PWR reactors that first reached criticality in 1982 and 1976, respectively. A third unit, ANGRA-3, is currently under construction.


  • Observer of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
  • Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1957
  • Signed 1925 Geneva Protocol in 1925
    • Ratified in 1970
  • Acceded to Antarctic Treaty in 1975
  • Signed Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention in 1997
    • Ratified in 1999
  • Signed Arms Trade Treaty in 2013
    • Ratified in 2018
  • Signed Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) in 1972
    • Ratified in 1973
  • Signed Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1993
    • Ratified in 1996
  • Signed Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996
    • Ratified in 1998
  • Acceded to Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons in 1995
  • Signed Convention on Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD) in 1977
    • Ratified in 1984
  • Signed Inter-American Convention on Firearms in 1997
    • Ratified in 199
  • Signed Inter-American Convention on Transparency in 1999
    • Ratified in 2006
  • Signed the Convention on the Physical protection of Nuclear Materials (CPPNM) in 1981
    • Ratified in 1985
  • Signed International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT) in 2005
    • Ratified in 2009
  • Signed Outer Space Treaty in 1967
    • Ratified in 1969
  • Signed Partial Test Ban Treaty in 1963
    • Ratified in 1964
  • Signed Sea-bed Treaty in 1971
    • Ratified in 1988
  • Signed Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1967
    • Ratified in 1968
  • Acceded to Treaty for the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 1998
  • Signed Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) in 2017


  • Member of the Union of South American Nations
  • Member of the Organization of American States (OAS)
  • Member of the Organization of Ibero-American States
  • Member of the Latin American and Caribbean Group (GRULAC)
  • Member of the G-77
  • Member of the G-21
  • Member of the New Agenda Coalition (NAC)


  • IAEA Board Member for 2019-2020
  • IAEA Board Chair for 1999-2000 and 2015-2016
  • Non-permanent member of the UN Security Council from 2004-2005 and 2010-2011
  • Member of the 1540 Committee in 2004-2005 and 2010-2011


Mission of Brazil to the United Nations

National Commission for Nuclear Energy

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

UN State Summary

Ratification of Treaties & Memberships in International Organizations Related to Disarmament