Country Profile: Iran


The Islamic Republic of Iran is the second-largest country in the Middle East region, bordered by Armenia and Azerbaijan to the northwest, Turkmenistan to the northeast, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, and Turkey and Iraq to the west. Iran is a unitary Islamic republic that gained its independence in 1979 with the Islamic Revolution, when it officially became the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Capital: Tehran

Iran currently has four operational research reactors (TRR, ENTC LWSCR, ENTC HWZPR, ENTC MNSR) and one nuclear power plant (Bushehr-1).

Beginning in the 1950s and restarting in the 1980s, Iran has amassed capabilities over the full nuclear fuel cycle, in particular an extensive uranium enrichment program.

In 2005, the IAEA found Iran in non-compliance with its Comprehensive Safeguard Agreement, resulting in widespread international sanctions. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was agreed upon in 2015, lifting nuclear-related sanctions on Iran in exchange for a cessation of non-compliant activities.

In 2018, the Trump administration withdrew the United States from the JCPOA, leaving the future of Iran’s compliance in question.


  • Joined the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in 1961
  • Signed Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1968
                                  • Ratified in 1970
  • Signed Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1993
                                  • Ratified in 1997
  • Signed Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) in 1972
                                  • Ratified in 1973
  • Signed Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 2006
  • Signed Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in 2015


  • Founding member of OPEC
  • Member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (IOC)
  • Member of the G-77
  • Member of the G-21
  • Member of the Asia-Pacific Group


  • Chaired 2012 NAM Summit
  • Rapporteur to the UN First Committee in 2013
  • Chairperson of the G-77 in 2001


Ratification of Treaties & Membership in International Organizations Related to Disarmament

UN State Summary